1-20 of 73 results  for:

  • Books, Manuscripts, and Illustration x
  • 1100–1200 x
Clear all

Article

Jane Geddes

Deluxe manuscript (Aberdeen, U. Lib., MS. 24) made in England around 1200. It is remarkable for its lavish illustrations, amply covered in gold leaf; for the wealth of its codicological data and for its close relationship to the Ashmole Bestiary. The book was left unfinished, so sketches and the detailed instructions for its colouring and assembly remain visible. The last few pages were completed in the 14th century. The book begins with a Creation cycle of full-page miniatures culminating in ...

Article

A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated ...

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Illuminator.

Burgundy School.

A certain Albertus, a native of Trier (Trèves), is mentioned among the abbots of the monastery of Cluny between 1109 and 1122 under the name of Pontius, and between 1122 and 1157 as Pierre. He worked at the same time as Opizon on an extraordinary Bible, the binding of which was encrusted with precious stones and which was kept in the library of Cluny. This magnificent book is no longer in existence, but we can assume that it was one of the masterpieces of this highly original school of which Cluny was the centre in the 12th century....

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Miniaturist, illuminator. Religious subjects.

A monk, this artist illustrated a manuscript of St Augustine's City of God.

Boulogne-sur-Mer (Bibliothèque municipale): The City of God

Article

Artistic manifestations of Arthurian legends antedate surviving textual traditions and sometimes bear witness to stories that have not survived in written form. Thus the Tristan sculptures (c. 1102–17) carved on a column from the north transept of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela...

Article

Debra Higgs Strickland

Richly illustrated bestiary manuscript (275×185mm, 105 fols; Oxford, Bodleian Lib., Ashmole 1511), written in Latin and illuminated probably in southern England around 1210. The original patron is unknown. It contains the text and illustrations of a complete bestiary, with prefatory Creation scenes and excerpts from Genesis and part of Hugh de Folieto’s ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Charles Buchanan

Type of large-format Bible, usually found in pandect (single-volume) form, produced in central Italy and Tuscany from around 1060 to the middle of the 12th century. They came out of the efforts of a reformist papacy intent on wresting control over ecclesiastical investiture from the Holy Roman Emperor. The Giant Bibles were produced in reformed canonries and monasteries and then exported to the same, not only in Italy but throughout Europe....

Article

Robert G. Calkins

Book that describes and draws Christian moralizations from the characteristics and habits of animals, birds, fish, reptiles, and even minerals, real and imaginary. It was especially popular during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Its core early Christian text, partly informed by Indian, Hebrew, and Egyptian legends and known as the ...

Article

Bobbio  

Michael Richter

Monastery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Approximately 50 km south of Piacenza in the Apennines, it was founded c. ad 613 through the cooperation of the Lombard king Agilulf (reg 590–615) and the Irish abbot and saint Columbanus (c. 540–615). Its nucleus was an older dilapidated church dedicated to St Peter. Columbanus died on 23 November 615, but his name and renown remained alive in the following centuries. Through cooperation with the Lombard monarchs as well as later the Carolingian kings, Bobbio became a very prominent monastery in Northern Italy. In 628 it was granted the earliest monastic exemption from supervision by the local diocesan, the bishop of Tortona. The community of Bobbio apparently lived according to the Rule of Columbanus as well as the Rule of Basil of Caesarea. The presence of the Rule of St Benedict cannot be documented there before the early 9th century. Bobbio became a known not only as a centre of Irish learning but also as a centre of grammatical as well as computational studies. Its early library also contained Classical texts as well as important palimpsests (a ‘catalogue’ survives from the late 9th century). In the late 9th and early 10th centuries (a period of economic decline) important illuminated manuscripts were produced there. The abbatial church was rebuilt under Abbot Agilulf (...

Article

Nigel J. Morgan

Manuscript (514×353 mm; Cambridge, Corpus Christi Coll., MS. 2) identified with a Bible recorded in the Gesta sacristarum of Bury St Edmunds Abbey. It is described as having been commissioned by the Sacrist, Hervey, in the time of his brother, Prior Talbot (c. 1125–38...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

Article

Don Denny

Numerical list of concordant passages in the Gospels, devised in the early 4th century by the historian Eusebios of Caesarea. Such tables indicate passages to be found in all four Gospels, those found in two or three of the Gospels and those unique to a particular Gospel. In medieval manuscripts they appear as a series of pages, varying from seven to as many as nineteen, placed at the front of Gospel books and often included, preceding the Gospels, in full ...

Article

Charter  

James D’Emilio

Legal document typically written in documentary script on a single parchment sheet and authenticated by subscriptions, notarial signs or seals. In archives, originals were sometimes stitched into booklets or rolls. Notarial charters were registered, while deeds of ecclesiastical and civil institutions were copied in cartularies organized by place, date or issuer. Charters include contracts, property transactions, marriage agreements, dispute settlements, official privileges and decrees....

Article

Patricia Stirnemann

English illuminated Psalter (Copenhagen, Kon. Bib., MS. Thott 143 2°), made in the late 12th century. The Copenhagen Psalter is a royal Psalter and the story of its making involves three countries, the papal schism, and the expanding presence of the Augustinian Canons in northern Europe, Scandinavia, and England, where they were known as the Austin Canons. The manuscript, which has clear Austin elements in its calendar, was made in northern England, probably in Lincoln, in the later 12th century, apparently before the canonization of St Thomas Becket in ...

Article

Laura Minervini

Treatise on falconry and ornithology written c. 1240 by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (see Hohenstaufen family, §2). Keen on hunting with birds, Frederick II based his work both on personal experience and on the available written sources, notably Aristotle’s zoological texts translated by his court astrologer Michael Scotus. The Latin text is preserved in seven manuscripts, two in a two-book version and five in a six-book version; the latter form is probably closer to the original, but still incomplete. Moreover, a fragment from the fourth book has been found in a miscellaneous Latin manuscript. The short version of the Latin text was translated twice into French (14th–15th centuries), with five extant manuscripts. All in all, Frederick’s treatise was not very successful, especially if compared with less ambitious but more practical texts, such as the ...

Article

One of the few surviving, early medieval, Latin technical treatises. Its attribution, localization, and dating rest largely on internal evidence variously interpreted and inconclusive. The treatise now comprises three books: it is generally agreed that Books I and II, written in verse by one hand at some time between the 7th and 12th centuries, constitute the original text; Book III, written in prose, was added piecemeal during the 12th and 13th centuries. The treatise is commonly attributed to ...

Article

M. Heinlen

Essentially a papal letter concerning a matter of canonical discipline. Throughout the Middle Ages numerous collections of decretals were compiled, which served as the basis of ecclesiastical administration and canon law; in the 12th century they began to be extensively illustrated. Between the 12th and 15th centuries illustrated canon law manuscripts, primarily comprising decretals, were made and used throughout western Europe, with major centres of production located in such university cities as ...

Article

Kathryn B. Gerry

Extensively illuminated triple psalter (460×330 mm; Cambridge, Trinity Coll., MS. R.17.1) made at Christ Church, Canterbury, in the 1150s with material added in the 1160s. Modelled in part on the Utrecht Psalter (Utrecht, Bib. Rijksuniv., MS. 32). The Eadwine Psalter contains three Latin versions of the psalms in parallel columns: ...

Article

Elizabeth Sears

Term anachronistically applied to a wide range of antique and medieval works of a compendious character, which were often provided with extensive cycles of didactic illustration. The boundaries of the genre are difficult to set, for the content, scale, structure, stated aims, and intended audiences of the works vary considerably. All contain comprehensive descriptions of the natural world—celestial and terrestrial—often in conjunction with information from other fields, for example history or ethics. The material, drawn from sources approved by tradition, is normally presented not alphabetically but according to systems of the author’s devising. The compilations are often simply called ‘On the nature of things’, but sometimes more evocative metaphoric titles are employed: ‘image’ or ‘mirror’ of the world, ‘garden of delights’, ‘treasure’. The works, each containing a library of information in small compass, were intended to be of practical use, especially to commentators on the Bible. They served an edifying function by bringing the reader to the knowledge and love of the Creator....