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Article

French, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 30 October 1858, in Étampes; died 1927, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, draughtswoman, illustrator. Allegorical subjects, genre scenes, portraits, interiors, flowers. Decorative panels.

Abbéma was a pupil of Chaplin, Henner and Carolus-Duran. Until 1926, she exhibited regularly at the Salon des Artistes Français, gaining an honourable commendation in 1881 and a bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle of 1900. She was made a Chévalier of the Légion d'Honneur in 1906....

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1777, in Cremona; died 1857.

Painter, watercolourist, decorative designer, illustrator. Portraits, landscapes with figures, landscapes. Murals, church decoration, theatre decoration.

Agostino Aglio trained in Milan at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera. In 1803 he went to England to collaborate with William Wilkins, the architect, on a work concerning the antiquities of ancient Greece, which was published in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 21 August 1887, in Bordeaux; died 27 February 1965, in Paris.

Painter, decorative artist, engraver (wood), illustrator. Historical subjects, portraits, nudes, seascapes, boats.

Gustave Alaux was the son of Daniel Alaux and great-grandson of Jean-Paul Alaux, otherwise known as Gentil (the Gentle). He studied under Marcel Baschet and Henri Royer at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français from ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 November 1925, in La Ciotat.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, lithographer, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, nudes, portraits, interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes. Wall decorations.

Symbolism.

Jean-Pierre Alaux was the son of François Alaux and the great-great-grandson of Jean-Paul Alaux. From ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 April 1870, in Slough; died 6 January 1935.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink/wash), pastellist, illustrator. Sporting subjects, genre scenes, hunting scenes, animals, landscapes. Posters, decorative schemes.

Cecil Aldin studied anatomy and animal painting with the animal painter William Frank Calderon at Kensington Art School. His watercolour drawings, with their sure touch and pure colours, brought him to fame. He also wrote and illustrated many children's books, such as ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1948.

Born 19 October 1927, in Brussels.

Painter (mixed media), watercolourist, engraver, illustrator, draughtsman. Artists' books, wall decorations.

CoBrA group.

In 1944, Pierre Alechinsky was a pupil at the École d'Architecture et d'Arts in Brussels, interested in professions involving books, typography and engraving. He always retained this preoccupation for the printed word, and devoted a large part of his time to engraving, illustrating the books of poet friends and writing himself. In 1947, he travelled to Morocco and Yugoslavia. That same year he began to exhibit in Brussels and became a member of the group ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 19 August 1890, in Fontainebleau; died 22 April 1969, in Paris.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, landscapes. Designs for tapestries, wall decorations, stage sets.

Yves Alix studied at the Académie Julian in Paris, and won a place at the École des Beaux-Arts, but instead chose to enter the Académie Ranson, where Bonnard, Vuillard, K.-X. Roussel, Maurice Denis and Sérusier worked as teachers. He began exhibiting his work in 1912 at the Salon des Indépendants, of which he became a committee member, as well as at the Salon d'Automne. He also exhibited at the Salon des Tuileries and the Salon Comparaisons. Alix's work featured in a large number of solo exhibitions, mostly in art galleries in Paris, but also in Strasbourg, and at a retrospective exhibition in 1990 to mark the centenary of his birth, held at the Donadeï de Campredon hotel of the Isle-sur-la-Sorgue....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 23 September 1923, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink), illustrator. Portraits, landscapes. Wall decorations, designs for stained glass, designs for mosaics.

A self-taught artist, Gérard Altmann lived in Paris in the post-war years, moving to Provence in 1952. In the early years he was a figurative artist, painting mainly landscapes in muted colour tones. He received numerous commissions for murals, stained glass windows and mosaics, and shifted towards a relatively abstract approach, retaining some suggestion of reality and, in contrast to his figurative period, featuring strong colours. His architectural preoccupations, embodied in chiaroscuro, transcend the different periods. He shows perfect mastery of watercolour techniques, and also produces Indian ink drawings. He illustrated ...

Article

Ambry  

Gordon Campbell

Cupboard, either in the recess of a wall or as a separate article of furniture), variously used as a pantry or a meat-safe. In ecclesiastical use, it denotes a cupboard, locker, or closed recess in the wall, for the storage of books, sacramental vessels and vestments...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1910.

Born 1892, in Bilbao; died April 1971, in St-Jean-de-Luz, France.

Painter (gouache), illustrator, decorative designer. Landscapes with figures. Stage sets.

Ramiro Arrue y Valle, the brother of Alberto, José and Ricardo, was educated at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. Although he painted Basque subjects, he was mainly active in France. Before World War I, he exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français in Paris, and was a regular exhibitor at the Salon d'Automne ...

Article

Michèle Lavallée

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed....

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 17 September 1943, in Lillebonne (Seine-Maritime).

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Historical subjects, scenes with figures. Stage sets, wall decorations.

Nouvelle Figuration.

Daniel Authouart decided to become a painter at the age of 14 on discovering the work of Toulouse-Lautrec, although he had to wait for two years to enter the fine arts school. He devoted these two years to drawing, observing the works of the great masters in the museum in Rouen and reading Flaubert, Spillane, Faulkner and Sartre. He lives and works in Rouen, painting the story of his surroundings in a style of exaggerated realism. He says, 'Each of my pictures strives to be a bit like a cartoon strip with a single image. By means of the different signs in my canvases, it is possible to discover what happened before and what may be going to happen next.' His compositions appear to unroll to infinity, not only in terms of time and space but in the profusion of detail. He has created record sleeves for musical artists and variety performers, and has designed theatre décor for the Théâtre de la Ville in Paris, the Athénée, the Essaïon and the Maison de la Culture in Le Havre. He has produced illustrations for Baudelaire's ...

Article

Spanish, 19th century, male.

Born 26 February 1807, in Madrid; died 1891.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Landscapes. Theatre decoration.

Avrial y Flores entered the Real Academia de San Fernando at only 12 years of age, where his teachers were José de Madrazo and Fernando Brambilla. He taught at the design school in Segovia in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 21 September 1871, in Marseilles; died 29 December 1939.

Painter, pastellist, illustrator. Mythological subjects, genre scenes, scenes with figures, landscapes. Wall decorations.

A pupil of Maignan and Bonnet, Avy mainly painted Italian landscapes, as well as decorative work, including the room used for weddings in the town hall in Rotterdam....

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 1894, in Marseilles; died 1989.

Painter, fresco artist, decorative designer, illustrator. Portraits, scenes with figures, landscapes, waterscapes. Stage sets.

After studying drawing at the Conservatoire in Toulouse, Alix Aymé worked with Maurice Denis and assisted in the decoration of the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées. From the 1920s, she taught art in the French lycée in Hanoi and travelled widely in Indochina, India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). In ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 30 July 1885, in Paris.

Painter, engraver, decorative designer, binder. History painting, portraits, landscapes, flowers.

Ballet exhibited in Paris at the Salon des Indépendants until 1932, at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts between 1914 and 1939 and at the Salon des Artistes Décorateurs. He won several awards including one at the ...

Article

Norwegian, 19th century, male.

Born 13 April 1823, in Oslo; died 1 May 1906, in Oslo.

Painter, illustrator, photographer. Historical subjects, military portraits, equestrian portraits. Decorative schemes.

Balling studied decorative painting at the royal school of art in Oslo, after which he spent some time in Copenhagen and Bremen before studying for two years at the Berlin academy. He returned to Oslo in ...

Article

Balthus  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 29 February 1908, in Paris; died 18 February 2001, in Rossinière.

Painter (gouache), decorative designer, draughtsman, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, nudes, portraits, interiors with figures, still-lifes, flowers, landscapes, mountainscapes. Stage sets.

Poetic Reality.

Although of Polish origin, Balthus spent his early years in Paris before moving to Switzerland in 1914, settling in Geneva. He began painting when very young. He was probably self-taught but he grew up in a highly artistic environment; his family were artists and art lovers whose friends included Pierre Bonnard, André Gide and Rainer Maria Rilke. He was encouraged particularly by Rilke, who admired his attraction to the Far East. It was for Balthus that Rilke published his first work in French, a preface to the volume of his first drawings of cats. Bonnard also admired the young Balthus, and wrote a preface for his first exhibition, held when he was only 15 years old. With such encouragement, by the time he was 16, Balthus decided that he could dedicate himself entirely to painting and went to live in Paris, where he studied the works of French masters including Poussin, David and Courbet....