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Nancy G. Heller

In 

See Mellon family

Article

Judith Zilczer

Exhibition of art held between 17 February and 15 March 1913 in New York at the 69th Regiment Armory, Lexington Avenue, Manhattan (see fig.), from which it derived its nickname. The exhibition then travelled to the Art Institute of Chicago (24 March–16 April) and Copley Hall, Boston (28 April–19 May). This first large-scale show of modern art held in the USA (...

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Christophe Spaenjers

Set of financial methods, instruments, and business models that are used in the Art market. Important developments since the 1960s include the spreading availability and use of art price information and price indexes (see Art index), the emergence of loans collateralized by artworks, repeated efforts to create art investment structures, and a strong growth in art market advisory services provided by wealth managers and new entrepreneurs (...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 21 February 1791, in New Haven (Connecticut); died 1858, in New Haven.

Sculptor.

Originally an art dealer, Hezekiah Augur did not start sculpting until after a bankruptcy. His work was noted and appreciated from the start and among his works is a bust of Washington. He was a honorary member of the Academy of Fine Arts in New York....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 17 March 1822, in New York; died 11 August 1904, in New York.

Engraver.

When he became a publisher and art dealer in 1865, Samuel Putnam Avery completely gave up wood-engraving and confined himself to burin engraving.

Article

M. Sue Kendall

American chemist and collector. Barnes made his fortune after discovering the drug Argyrol in 1902. By 1907 he had become a millionaire. He and his wife moved to the suburb of Merion on Philadelphia’s affluent Main Line and with his new income began to collect paintings of the ...

Article

Malcolm Gee

(b Berlin, Jan 6, 1914; d Paris, Feb 23, 2007). German American art dealer and collector, active in France. Berggruen came from a middle-class Jewish family. He immigrated to the USA in 1937, and was granted American citizenship in 1941. He served in the army between ...

Article

Bliss  

Anne McClanan

American collectors. Robert Woods Bliss (b St Louis, MO, 5 Aug 1875; d Washington, DC, 19 April 1962) and his wife, Mildred Bliss (née Barnes) (b New York City, Sept 1879; d Washington, 17 Jan 1969), developed their interest in art while living abroad, where Robert Bliss served as a diplomat until his retirement in ...

Article

Bonhams  

Molly K. Dorkin

Auction house established in London 1793 by William Charles Bonham, a book dealer (also recorded as Walter Bonham), and George Jones, from a gallery founded by Thomas Dodd (1771–1850), a dealer in antiquarian prints. Bonhams originally specialized in sales of prints in the 18th and 19th centuries, at which time the market was robust. By the 19th century Bonhams was also holding sales of antiques, which were advertised in the London press alongside similar offerings from ...

Article

Simon Pepper

American industrialist and patron of Scottish birth. Aged 11, Andrew Carnegie immigrated with his parents to Allegheny, near Pittsburgh, PA, where he educated himself while working as an office messenger and telegraph operator, before rising to enormous wealth through railroads, oil, and the iron and steel industries. During his lifetime he gave more than $350 million to a variety of social, educational, and cultural causes, the best known being his support for public libraries, which he believed would provide opportunities for self-improvement without ‘any taint of charity’. Here communities had to pay for the building site and the books, and to commit at least 10 per cent of Carnegie’s initial gift in annual support. As Carnegie struggled to give away money—for ‘to die rich was to die disgraced’—music, fine art, archaeology, and technical schools also became beneficiaries, together with programmes for the education of minorities in recognition of civilian heroism and world peace (still a central concern of the Carnegie Foundation)....

Article

Titia Hulst

American art dealer. Leo Castelli opened his eponymous gallery in 1957 and he gave Jasper Johns his first solo show in 1958, which established both the artist’s and the dealer’s reputations as Castelli sought to identify the successor generation to the Abstract Expressionism; the gallery’s stable included ...

Article

Joseph R. Givens

American art dealer, curator, and critic. Deitch is best known for transforming the American art market with the introduction of post-industrial business practices. A Connecticut native, he studied art history at Wesleyan University (1970–74) and opened his first gallery in 1972 at the Curtis Hotel in Lenox, MA. He studied the economics of art at Harvard Business School, and earned an MBA in ...

Article

Sally Webster

American industrialist, collector, and museum creator. Frick received little formal education and went to work at an early age as a bookkeeper. By the early 1870s he had earnt enough money to buy up coke fields in Western Pennsylvania, processing the coke in his own ovens. In a few short years he was the major supplier of fuel for Pittsburgh’s iron and steel industries and by the time he was 30 had earned his first million. In celebration he travelled to Europe with Andrew Mellon who, in ...

Article

Joseph R. Givens

American art dealer. Gagosian is considered a catalyst for the globalization of the art market. Raised in Los Angeles by a middle-class family, Gagosian did not recall visiting an art museum until he was in college. After studying literature at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), from ...

Article

Lillian B. Miller and Margaret Barlow

American patron, collector, and museum founder. The daughter of a wealthy New York merchant and wife of a prominent Boston banker, John L. Gardner jr (1837–98), she bought her first important painting in 1873—a small landscape by the Barbizon painter Charles Jacque. (All works cited are in Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Mus.) In the 1870s she also began to collect rare books, manuscripts, autographs, and etchings, under the influence of Charles Eliot Norton. Although she continued to buy such pieces until her death, after the 1880s books took second place to art. During a trip to Europe in ...

Article

See Whitney family

Article

Stephen F. Thorpe

American businessman, collector, and patron. Born into a wealthy family, he followed his father into the oil business. This was his chief occupation and made him one of the richest individuals in the world. In 1912 he visited East Asia, where he purchased some pieces of carved ivory, bronzes, and lacquer. However, Getty did not begin to collect actively until the 1930s: the Depression dictated relatively low prices, and this presented an opportunity to acquire a small art collection, for investment. In ...

Article

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew ...

Article

A. Deirdre Robson

American family of collectors. In the late 19th century Meyer Guggenheim (1828–1905), an immigrant Swiss Jew, established a family fortune based on the mining and smelting of ore (particularly copper). Two of Meyer’s sons became patrons of the arts: (1) Solomon R. Guggenheim and ...

Article

Kathryn Bonomi

American art collector and dealer. He was the eldest son of Julius Hammer, a descendant of Russian Jewish immigrants and a member of the Socialist Labor Party. By the age of 23, Armand had become a millionaire by reviving his father’s failing pharmaceutical business and selling it to his own employees; he had also completed medical school. When an epidemic of typhus broke out in the USSR in ...