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Christopher Tadgell

French engineer, architect, teacher and writer. He was born to a newly ennobled member of the household of the queen-mother, Marie de’ Medici. He joined the army and became a military engineer, attaining the rank of Maréchal de Camp by 1652. In that year he was seconded by one of the secretaries of state for foreign affairs, the Comte de Brienne, to accompany his son on a comprehensive Grand Tour of Europe. On his return in ...

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Robert Enggass

Italian painter and theorist. He went to Milan about 1665 to study painting under Francesco Cairo. A decade later he moved to Venice, where for the Lombard chapel of S Maria dei Frari he painted St Carlo Borromeo Distributing Alms to the Poor (in situ...

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Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

Spanish painter, engraver and writer. He began his training in Murcia with Nicolás de Villacis (c. 1618–94) and Mateo Gilarte (c. 1620–after 1680), who both worked in a naturalist and tenebrist style. He travelled to Rome in the 1660s and came into contact with the Italian Baroque, especially the work of Pietro da Cortona and Carlo Maratti. On his return he was first in Valencia, where the work of Jerónimo Jacinto Espinosa became a strong influence. Towards ...

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David Cast

English painter and draughtsman of German birth. He was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th century and the early 18th, and, as such, the chief recorder of court society for almost 40 years. He popularized the kit-cat format for portraits and was also the founding governor in ...

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Claire Constans

French painter and designer. He dominated 17th-century French painting as no other artist; it was not until over a century later, during the predominance of Jacques-Louis David, that artistic authority was again so concentrated in one man. Under the protection of a succession of important political figures, including Chancellor Pierre Séguier (...

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Kim Sloan

English family of artists. At least four generations of the family worked in a variety of (often overlapping) artistic occupations, including drawing instruction, printmaking, topographical work and painting in miniature. According to George Vertue (‘Note-books’, Walpole Soc., xxvi (1938), p. 62), Bernard Lens (i) (...

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Bernard Aikema

Italian painter. With Sebastiano Ricci and Jacopo Amigoni he was the most important Venetian history painter of the early 18th century. By uniting the High Renaissance style of Paolo Veronese with the Baroque of Pietro da Cortona and Luca Giordano, he created graceful decorations that were particularly successful with the aristocracy of central and northern Europe. He travelled widely, working in Austria, England, the Netherlands, Germany and France....

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Sonja Weih-Krüger

German family of painters and engravers, of Bohemian origin, also active in Denmark. Daniel Preissler (b Prague, 8 March 1627; d Nuremberg, 19 June 1665), a pupil in Dresden of Christian Schiebling (1603–63), lived from 1652 in Nuremberg, becoming a master in ...

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Christian Klemm

German painter and writer. A leading figure in 17th-century German painting, he is chiefly famed for his biographical writings in the Teutsche Academie. His great-nephew, an engraver who died young in London, also bore the name Joachim von Sandrart (1668–91).

Sandrart came from a family of Calvinist refugees from Wallonia. After initial lessons in drawing with ...

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Alan Fausel

English painter. The great English exponent of Baroque decorative painting, he was the only one to compete successfully with foreigners for the relatively few large-scale decorative commissions available in England during the first quarter of the 18th century. His skill in this field was remarkable, since his training was irregular and his trips abroad (the Low Countries in ...

Article

French painter, administrator and teacher of Flemish origin. He trained with his father Philippe Vleughels (?1620–94), a Flemish painter who had moved to Paris in 1642; he was also a pupil of Pierre Mignard I. In 1694 he came second in the Prix de Rome competition with ...

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Helmut Börsch-Supan

Swiss painter, active in France and Germany . His work is diverse in form—ranging from portrait miniatures to ceiling paintings—and eclectic in manner, drawing on a wide range of 17th-century influences. Like his biography, it is marked by restlessness and inner division. The surviving oeuvre securely attributed to him comprises only 56 oil paintings, 47 miniatures, 60 drawings and 2 etchings (Glaesemer). The quality is uneven, and a clear line of development is difficult to discern. A decline in Werner’s creative powers set in long before his death....