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Term used in medieval construction for a stone-cutter’s identification mark cut into a dressed stone.


Lawrence Winkworth, Dimitris Plantzos, Mauro Cristofani, Martin Henig, Mary K. Whiting, Nada Chaldecott, Ludvik Kalus, Paul Williamson, Alfred Bernhard-Walcher and Gertrud Seidmann

Engraved gems are gemstones, whether quartzes or the harder, more precious stones, either engraved in intaglio, as for seals, or cut in cameo to give a raised relief image. In a wider sense gem-engraving encompasses shell cameos and moulded glass-paste imitations of engraved gems.

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Fine flexible leather made (originally in Morocco, Kingdom of) from goatskin tanned with sumac, used especially in bookbinding, shoemaking and upholstery. The term is also used to denote imitations made in sheepskin or lambskin.


Gordon Campbell

Decorative work in a fine material (e.g. glass, porcelain, semi-precious stones, silver or gold) that is attractive because of its antiquity, beauty and quality of workmanship. ‘Vertu’ (It. virtù) refers to a taste for curios or other works of art. The traditional form objets de vertu...



Term for a painted character study of a head in exotic dress. Tronies were produced mostly in the Netherlands in the 17th century, mainly in Leiden by such artists as Rembrandt, Jan Lievens and Gerrit Dou.