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Acutus  

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Pianella during the second half of the 12th century.

Sculptor.

According to an inscription, this artist made the throne in S Angelo, Pranella.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor, architect.

According to an inscription, this artist worked on the columns of the crypt of S Zeno, Verona.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor. Monuments.

Lombard School.

This artist was the sculptor, with his son Petrus, of one of the stone crucifixes in S Petronio, Bologna (1159). The work is a perfect example of the characteristics of Lombardian modelling in the 12th century....

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor.

This artist was probably working between 1190 and 1200.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor.

This artist's name is found in the file of a legal case between the Chapter of Pisa Cathedral and the Gualandi family in the 12th century. The document is not dated but is thought to have been written in 1183...

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor.

Zani simply gives this inscription: Me Ambrosius sculpsit Petrus Abbas Sculpere Jussit ecc (Ambrosius sculpted me and Abbot Peter ordered it)..., and says that Ambrosius worked in Viterbo in 1140.

Article

P. Cornelius Claussen

Italian architect and sculptor. He was probably a member of the Paulus family of Roman marble workers (see Cosmati) and a son of Angelo de Paolo. His authenticated work lies partly outside the traditional marble-working fields of furnishing and decorating church interiors and includes building. The tower doorway of Gaeta Cathedral, Lazio, bears his signature on the keystone, set on either side of a relief of a flying eagle, the symbol of St John the Evangelist. The monumental architecture of the entrance arch is articulated by rich columns and capitals, retrieved from an earlier building; its details show familiarity both with the Antique and with contemporary Campanian sculpture. The tower was begun after ...

Article

Angelus  

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor.

This artist was the son of the sculptor Paulus, the head of one of the families of artists that decorated the churches of Rome and the Roman provinces. Active in Rome in the middle of the 12th century, in collaboration with his brothers Johannes, Petrus and Sasso di Paolo, he sculpted the ciboria of S Lorenzo (...

Article

Angelus  

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor.

This artist, mentioned in a document dated 1119, may be the first recorded Florentine sculptor.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Campione during the second half of the 12th century.

Architect, sculptor.

The founding member of a family of artists, Anselmo worked on the building of the Modena Cathedral, and was at the height of his powers about 1180. J. Burckhardt attributes to him (and to Campori and Borghi) a number of reliefs of ...

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor. Figures, interiors with figures.

Sculptor of a relief of the Roman Door ( Porta Romana) in Milan, now in the archaeological museum of the city. He is probably identical with Anselmo da Campione.

Milan (Mus. archeologico): Porta Romana (...

Article

Christine Verzar

Italian sculptor. He signed, with Girardus, the reliefs of the Porta Romana in Milan (now Milan, Castello Sforzesco); he is described as Dedalus alter, while Girardus is mentioned as pollice docto. The reliefs, dated 1171, show contemporary scenes of warfare between the Milanese and inhabitants of Brescia, Cremona and Bergamo. Fra Jacobo holds a crusading standard; St Ambrose is fighting the Arians and Jews. These sculptures, relating both to the patron saints of the city-state and to contemporary life, are typical of civic commissions. The narrative style depends somewhat on that of Nicholaus, but the reliefs also show influences from Provençal Romanesque and the school of Wiligelmo, seen in the monumentality of the figures, the classicizing facial features and the complex relief technique. The sculptors formed part of the larger school of ...

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

Modena School.

One of the masters of Northern Italian medieval sculpture, this artist worked from 1177 to 1233. Among his works is a marble relief Descent from the Cross in Parma Cathedral.

Article

Christine Verzar

Italian sculptor and architect. After Wiligelmo and Nicholaus, Antelami was the last of the great northern Italian sculptors working in the cities of the central Po Valley in the 12th century. Although he is referred to in the inscriptions as a sculptor, it is probable that he was also an architect, and that he belonged originally, as his name implies, to the guild of civic builders known as the ‘Magistri Antelami’, active in the region of Como. He worked mainly in Parma and its surroundings, although his influence was widespread....

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Piperno.

Sculptor, architect.

According to an inscription dated 1183, this artist built the portico of the cathedral of Piperno. A number of sculptures in this church are also attributed to him.

Article

Artistic manifestations of Arthurian legends antedate surviving textual traditions and sometimes bear witness to stories that have not survived in written form. Thus the Tristan sculptures (c. 1102–17) carved on a column from the north transept of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor.

In inscriptions of 1133, this artist is mentioned as the builder of the south façade of Foligno Cathedral and the abbey of S Pietro in Bovara.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 12th century.

Sculptor, founder (bronze).

This artist made the double doors of the cathedrals of Trani in about 1175, of Ravello in 1179, and Monreale in 1185. In the first two he used the oriental technique of damascening, that is, mounting metal panels on a wooden frame. In Monreale he used relief casting of the type found on Byzantine caskets. The 33 panels of the Trani doors depict, variously, religious scenes, soldiers and animal life. These are found on the other doors as well, with the addition at Monreale of decorative elements surrounding the scenes....

Article

David A. Walsh

Italian sculptor. Three pairs of bronze doors made from a common set of moulds are identified with the maker Barisanus of Trani: the doors of the west portals of the cathedrals of Ravello (Campania) and Trani (Apulia) and the north portal of Monreale Cathedral in Sicily. The door at Ravello is dated ...