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Article

Tessa Garton

Italian sculptor. His name occurs in inscriptions on a marble pulpit in Canosa Cathedral and on the beams of similar pulpits at S Maria, Siponto, and the Sanctuary of S Michele at Monte Sant’Angelo. The inscription on the Canosa pulpit (per iussionem domini mei guitberti venerabilis presbiteri, ego acceptus peccator archidiaconus feci[?t] hoc opus...

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Active in Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire).

Sculptor.

Aldebertus was the son of Gunsmarus de Maximiaco and Marie. He was Prior of St-Romain-le-Puy (Loire) in 1017, and a pupil of the masters who built the abbey church of St-Martin d'Ainay in Lyons. He is supposed to have built the church of St-Romain-le-Puy....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Italian, 11th century, male.

Active in Pisa.

Sculptor. Statues.

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

Article

John Williams

Sardonyx cup with gold mounts (h. 184 mm, diam. 173 mm; León, Mus.–Bib. Real Colegiata S Isidoro), given by Urraca (c. 1032–1101), the eldest daughter of Ferdinand I, King of Castile-León (reg 1035–65), and sister of Alfonso VI, King of Castile-León (...

Article

Enkai  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 11th century.

Sculptor.

Enkai was a Buddhist monk from Mount Shigi near Nara. He was one of the first ­sculptors to use the yosegi (joined-wood) style of carving, whereby monumental sculp­- tures were made from several different blocks of wood that had been carved separately and then put together. Until that time, these large wooden figures had been carved using the ichiboku technique, meaning out of a single block of wood. Enkai’s famous seated statue of ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the ...

Article

Stephen T. Driscoll

Scottish royal centre in Perthshire, which reached its zenith in the late Pictish period (8th–9th centuries ad) and is the source of an assemblage of high quality ecclesiastical sculpture. Occupying the fertile heart of Strathearn, Forteviot has been more or less in continuous use as a ceremonial centre since the 3rd millennium ...

Article

Flemish School, 11th century, male.

Active in Liègec.1081.

Sculptor, illuminator.

This artist was a monk at the abbey of St-Hubert in the Ardennes.

Article

Thomas W. Lyman

French sculptor. An inscription around the edge of the marble altar table consecrated on 16 May 1096 by Urban II at St Sernin, Toulouse, concludes bernardus gelduinus me fecit (see Toulouse, §2, (i), (b)). It has been thought to refer to a sculptor who was not only involved in the execution of the altar table but also in all seven large relief slabs now set in the ambulatory hemicycle wall and of a number of capitals elsewhere in the Romanesque basilica. These include three capitals in the same style reused on the Porte Miègeville on the south side of the nave, which, with other displaced elements, probably belonged to the programme for the sanctuary, which was incomplete at the consecration of ...

Article

Giso  

Italian, 11th century, male.

Sculptor (wood).

This artist was also an priest at the cathedral of Camerino and is known from a wooden crucifix he made for this church.

Article

French, 10th – 11th century, male.

Born 10th century, in Vercelli, into a Swedish family; died 1031, in Fécamp.

Sculptor, architect.

Guillaume was the abbot of Ste-Bénigne, Dijon. In 1001 Guillaume drew the plans of the Ste-Bénigne church, of which now only the porch exists. He had many pupils and built, either with or without their help, the churches of Vézeley, Vermenton, Avallon, and the Benedictine church of Nantua....

Article

French, 11th century, male.

Born in Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire).

Sculptor, architect.

This artist was a monk in the abbey of La Chaise-Dieu. Among his works in Périgueux Cathedral is Tomb of St Front (1081), which is considered a masterpiece. Guinamand was under the protection of Canon Étienne Ithier or Ithérius....

Article

Huesca  

Daniel Rico

Spanish provincial capital, to the north of Saragossa in Aragón. Known in pre-Roman Iberia as Bolskan and as Osca under the Romans, it was the seat of the Quintus Sertorius government, a municipium (free town) since the time of Augustus and a bishopric under the Visigoths. During the period of Muslim domination from the 8th to the 11th centuries, the town, known as Wasqa, became a defensive settlement with a city wall stretching for more than 1.8 km, of which some sections still remain. Although the city was recovered by the Christians in ...

Article

In  

Samuel C. Morse

Major school of Japanese Buddhist sculpture of the late Heian (ad 794–1185) and early Kamakura (1185–1333) periods (see Japan, §V, 3, (iii)). The school took its name from Injō (d 1108), who was the chief disciple of ...

Article

Injo  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Died 1108.

Sculptor.

Injo, a Buddhist sculptor, is said to be the son of Kakujo or Chosei and the grandson of Jocho, a great sculptor who died in 1057. He was therefore part of an important line of artists who formed one of the two main currents of Buddhist art at the beginning of the Heian period. He is considered the founder of the Shichijo Omiya studio in Kyoto, where he continued to work, with his numerous assistants, in the style of Jocho. It was probably for this reason that he received the honorary title of ...

Article

Jean  

10th – 11th century, male.

Born between 960 and 970, in Italy or in Greece; died 1016, in Liège.

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects. Church decoration.

Jean was employed by the emperor Otto III in 980 and 1002. He was rewarded for work on the chapel of Charlemagne by the gift of a bishopric in Italy. He returned to Germany, then went to Liège where he became a friend of the bishop Baldéric II, who encouraged him to decorate the choir of St James' Abbey. He built the church of St Andrew in Liège. This may be the same man as the painter Johannes who was working at this period at Nepi....

Article

Jocho  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Active in Kyoto.

Died 1057.

Sculptor.

At the end of the 9th century Japan was distancing itself from the influences of the Chinese Tang dynasty (618-906) and creating its own national art ( wa-yo).

Tradition places the sculptor Jocho at the origin of profound changes which would transform the style of sculpture and the social status of the artist. He can be traced back to ...

Article

Jōchō  

Samuel C. Morse

Japanese sculptor. He perfected the joined woodblock technique (yosegi zukuri), whereby sections of wood were hollowed, carved and assembled (see Japan, §V, 1, (ii), (b)). This facilitated the rapid, large-scale production of monumental images in the atelier and encouraged the development of the workshop (...