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Article

Abbon  

French, 7th century, male.

Active in Limoges from 600 to 630.

Sculptor.

This artist is thought to be the Master of St Eloysius.

Article

Adelr  

German, 6th – 7th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the Middle Ages.

Sculptor.

On the wall of the chapel of St Anne, in Worms Cathedral, there is an old stone relief of Daniel in the LionsDen by this artist.

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Donald F. McCallum

Japanese sculptor. He is associated with the inception of Buddhist image production in Japan and is generally considered to be the first great master of Japanese Buddhist sculpture (see also Japan, §V, 3, (i)). Tori Busshi is believed to have worked on the most important monumental sculpture of the Asuka period (...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

Article

Daniel  

Italian, 5th – 6th century, male.

Active in Ravenna.

Sculptor.

Article

Dimitris Plantzos

Greek city situated on the island of Crete, by the north-west foothills of mount Psiloritis (anc. Ida), 30 km south-east of the present-day city of Rethymnon. It was a centre for Aegean and Greek culture from the Prehistoric to the Byzantine periods (4th millennium bc...

Article

Eri  

Japanese, 9th – 10th century, male.

Born 852 or 856; died 20 January or 24 December 935.

Painter, sculptor (wood).

Eri was the abbot of the Toji temple in Kyoto. He was initially bursar to the novices in 915. In August 928, he became assistant ‘master of the law’; in December, second in superior; in 932, ‘master of the law’; and in December, senior assistant to the monks....

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the ...

Article

Italian, 9th century, male.

Active in Florence.

Sculptor.

Article

Stephen T. Driscoll

Scottish royal centre in Perthshire, which reached its zenith in the late Pictish period (8th–9th centuries ad) and is the source of an assemblage of high quality ecclesiastical sculpture. Occupying the fertile heart of Strathearn, Forteviot has been more or less in continuous use as a ceremonial centre since the 3rd millennium ...

Article

Fotuh  

Spanish, 10th century, male.

Activec.976.

Sculptor.

In Cordova a façade capital on a house in the Carrera del Puente that has Moorish decoration carries the signature of this artist and the year 366 of the Hejira (976-977).

Article

French, 8th century, male.

Active in Grenoble.

Sculptor.

Article

French, 10th – 11th century, male.

Born 10th century, in Vercelli, into a Swedish family; died 1031, in Fécamp.

Sculptor, architect.

Guillaume was the abbot of Ste-Bénigne, Dijon. In 1001 Guillaume drew the plans of the Ste-Bénigne church, of which now only the porch exists. He had many pupils and built, either with or without their help, the churches of Vézeley, Vermenton, Avallon, and the Benedictine church of Nantua....

Article

Hugo  

French, 10th century, male.

Sculptor, painter.

Active in Châlons-sur-Marne in 999, this artist decorated the city's cathedral. He may have been the abbot of the monastery of Montier-en-Der (Haute Marne).

Article

Jean  

10th – 11th century, male.

Born between 960 and 970, in Italy or in Greece; died 1016, in Liège.

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects. Church decoration.

Jean was employed by the emperor Otto III in 980 and 1002. He was rewarded for work on the chapel of Charlemagne by the gift of a bishopric in Italy. He returned to Germany, then went to Liège where he became a friend of the bishop Baldéric II, who encouraged him to decorate the choir of St James' Abbey. He built the church of St Andrew in Liège. This may be the same man as the painter Johannes who was working at this period at Nepi....

Article

Kakujo  

Japanese, 10th – 11th century, male.

Died 1077.

Sculptor.

Late Heian period.

Kakujo was the son of the famous sculptor Jocho (d. 1057). He was one of the sculptors who worked for the Fujiwara family and was granted the title Hogen (eye of the law, a title of the Buddhist clergy bestowed as an honorific title on certain artists) in ...

Article

Kang Woo-Bang

Korean sculptor. He is the only known sculptor of the Unified Silla period (ad 668–918). The name Kanggonaemal is composed of two elements: Kanggo, the name of the artisan, and naemal, also written nama, which is the title of the 11th of the 17 government ranks of the time and indicates the high position of the artisan. It is probably because of his aristocratic status that his name was recorded....

Article

Samuel C. Morse

Japanese sculptor. He worked in the Buddhist tradition of the Nara period (ad 710–94; see also Japan, §V, 3, (ii)). Like many artists of that time, Kimimaro was of foreign descent, his grandfather having immigrated from the Korean kingdom of Paekche in the 660s. His original family name was Kuni, but when he was rewarded in 749 with the honorary rank of ...

Article

Kosho  

Japanese, 10th – 11th century, male.

Activec.990-1020.

Sculptor.

Kosho was one of Japan’s greatest sculptors and created a number of important works for the imperial court on commissions from his patron, Fujiwara Michinaga. His style seems eminently suited to the aristocratic taste of the Hejan period, and it was he who originated the ...