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Article

French, 16th century, male.

Active in Metz in 1596.

Sculptor, founder, metal worker.

School of Lorraine.

Working with four founders, Hutinet, Dubois, Sonois and Voitié, François Abel cast the bell of the cathedral of Metz in eastern France.

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1538; died 22 May 1591, in Vienna.

Sculptor, medallist.

Prague School.

Antonio Abondio appears to have been the great 16th-century master in his field. He worked first in Munich at the court of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, then in Prague, where he was employed at the court of Emperor Rudolph II. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Covered silver cup shaped like the cupulate involucre in which the acorn grows, usually mounted on a botanical stem. Acorn cups were popular in Elizabethan and Jacobean England.

Article

Jeffrey Chipps Smith

German sculptor, mason and medallist. In 1536 he became a master sculptor in Munich and shortly afterwards entered the service of Ludwig X, Duke of Bavaria. He moved to Landshut in 1537 to work on the construction of the Italian wing of the ducal Stadtresidenz. In ...

Article

See Fonduli family

Article

Peter Strieder

In 

See Dürer family

Article

Alchemy  

Laurinda Dixon

Ancient science from which modern chemistry evolved. Based on the concept of transmutation—the changing of substances at the elemental level—it was both a mechanical art and an exalted philosophy. Practitioners attempted to combine substances containing the four elements (fire, water, earth, and air) in perfect balance, ultimately perfecting them into a fifth, the quintessence (also known as the philosopher’s stone) via the chemical process of distillation. The ultimate result was a substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone’, or ‘elixir of life’, believed capable of perfecting, or healing, all material things. Chemists imitated the Christian life cycle in their operations, allegorically marrying their ingredients, multiplying them, and destroying them so that they could then be cleansed and ‘resurrected’. They viewed their work as a means of attaining salvation and as a solemn Christian duty. As such, spiritual alchemy was sanctioned, legitimized, and patronized by the Church. Its mundane laboratory procedures were also supported by secular rulers for material gain. Metallurgists employed chemical apparatus in their attempts to transmute base metals into gold, whereas physicians and apothecaries sought ultimately to distill a cure-all elixir of life. The manifold possibilities inherent in such an outcome caused Papal and secular authorities to limit and control the practice of alchemy by requiring licences and punishing those who worked without authorization....

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active in Perugia.

Born 1479 or 1480; died after 1553.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Domenico di Paride was the son of the goldsmith Paride Alfani. He studied with Perugino and was a fellow student of Raphael and Rosso Fiorentino. His son Orazio was his greatest disciple, and for many years a number of his works were attributed to his son....

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Active in Amsterdam during the first half of the 16th century.

Engraver, goldsmith.

Article

German, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active in Augsburg in 1570.

Born c. 1547, in Colmar; died 1617, in Augsburg.

Enameller, goldsmith.

Article

Emma Packer

English goldsmith. He was the son of a London goldsmith and was the most successful goldsmith working at the Tudor court; his work bridged the transition between the Gothic and the Renaissance styles. He was an official at the Mint from 1504 to almost the end of his life, his appointment possibly facilitated by his marriage to Elizabeth, granddaughter of Sir ...

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1530, in Limoges.

Painter.

Anthoine painted a large work in about 1572 for the guild of goldsmiths of Limoges. He is perhaps a relative of the goldsmith mentioned in around 1750 as being from Limoges.

Article

Antico  

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born c. 1460; died 1528, in Bózzolo.

Goldsmith, sculptor, medallist, copyist. Statues, statuettes.

Antico was from Mantua and went to Rome in 1495 and 1497. His first commission was in 1479, for a pair of medals commemorating the wedding of Gianfranceso Gonzaga to Antonia del Banzo. His first visit to Rome, in ...

Article

Antico  

Charles Avery

Italian sculptor. An expert in goldsmith work, bronze sculpture and medals, he earned his nickname ‘Antico’ because of his ‘astonishing penetration of antiquity’ (Nesselrath). He achieved lasting fame through his small-scale re-creations (often also reinterpretations) of famous, but often fragmentary, statues of antiquity (e.g. the ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active in Rome and in Perugia.

Died c. 1522.

Painter, goldsmith.

Article

Gordon Campbell

Modern name for a group of unidentified workshops that produced embossed parade armours and shields for the court of Henry II in the third quarter of the 16th century. Some of these armours were produced by Etienne Delaune in a hypothetical French royal workshop assumed to be in Paris and long known as the Louvre School of Armourers. It was discovered that some of these armours had been decorated in the early 1560s in Antwerp by a goldsmith called Elisius Libaerts (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Small silver spoon, the handle of which ends with an apostle figure. Such spoons were manufactured in England and Germany from the late 15th century to the late 17th and were the usual present of sponsors at baptisms. When manufactured in sets of 13, the handle of the ‘master spoon’ was a figure of Jesus....

Article

Apvril  

French, 16th century, male.

Born in Paris.

Sculptor, goldsmith.

Apvril was granted citizenship in the town of Valenciennes in 1561.

Article

John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of ...

Article

Arfe  

German, 16th century, male.

Active in Spain.

Born to a family originally from Harff, near Cologne.

Goldsmiths.

While the work of the father, Enrique, is still Gothic in style, that of his son Antonio (born c. 1510 and died probably in Madrid in 1575) is Plateresque, a style mingling Italian Renaissance elements with surviving Moorish and Late Gothic design, as can be seen particularly in the large silver tabernacles he made for the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. The grandson (born 1535 and died 1603 in Madrid) made pyxes for the cathedrals of Avilla and Seville. These three members of the Arfe family were renowned for these pyxes or monstrances, which took the form of miniature basilicas made of precious metals. They were designed to contain the Holy Sacrament and exhibit it in processions....