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Article

J. M. Rogers

Arab metalworker. He is known from signatures on two undated inlaid wares, the Baptistère de St Louis (Paris, Louvre, LP 16, signed in six places) and the Vasselot Bowl (Paris, Louvre, MAO 331, signed once). His style is characterized by bold compositions of large figures encrusted with silver plaques on which details are elaborately chased. His repertory develops themes characteristic of later 13th-century metalwork from Mosul (...

Article

Matthew Woodworth

English cleric, architect, and goldsmith. Already an accomplished goldsmith when first recorded as monk of Ely Cathedral in 1314, Walsingham was appointed sub-prior of Ely in 1316, sacrist in 1321, and served as prior from 1341 until his death. As sacrist, Alan of Walsingham was responsible for the building fabric, particularly finances and general repair. He also supervised new construction projects, organized and paid the labour force, and arranged for delivery of materials. During his tenure, Walsingham oversaw the building of a new sacristy (...

Article

Alchemy  

Laurinda Dixon

Ancient science from which modern chemistry evolved. Based on the concept of transmutation—the changing of substances at the elemental level—it was both a mechanical art and an exalted philosophy. Practitioners attempted to combine substances containing the four elements (fire, water, earth, and air) in perfect balance, ultimately perfecting them into a fifth, the quintessence (also known as the philosopher’s stone) via the chemical process of distillation. The ultimate result was a substance, the ‘philosopher’s stone’, or ‘elixir of life’, believed capable of perfecting, or healing, all material things. Chemists imitated the Christian life cycle in their operations, allegorically marrying their ingredients, multiplying them, and destroying them so that they could then be cleansed and ‘resurrected’. They viewed their work as a means of attaining salvation and as a solemn Christian duty. As such, spiritual alchemy was sanctioned, legitimized, and patronized by the Church. Its mundane laboratory procedures were also supported by secular rulers for material gain. Metallurgists employed chemical apparatus in their attempts to transmute base metals into gold, whereas physicians and apothecaries sought ultimately to distill a cure-all elixir of life. The manifold possibilities inherent in such an outcome caused Papal and secular authorities to limit and control the practice of alchemy by requiring licences and punishing those who worked without authorization....

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Born c. 1290, in Pontedera; died between 26 August 1348 and 19 July 1349, in Orvieto (Umbria).

Sculptor, goldsmith, architect.

As the son of the goldsmith Ugolino Nini, it is likely that Andrea Pisano da Pontedera started by learning his father's trade. However, nothing is known of his early years except that he appears to have joined the studio of Lorenzo Maitani of Orvieto. From ...

Article

Spanish, 14th century, male.

Goldsmith, enameller.

Ramon Andrea worked on the silver retable decorated with enamels in Gerona Cathedral.

Article

John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of ...

Article

Italian goldsmith. A native of Antella (near Florence), he had moved to Florence by 16 August 1324, when he was registered in the goldsmiths’ guild. His sole extant autograph work, incorrectly attributed by Vasari to Cione Aretino, is the reliquary bust of St Zenobius (Florence, S Maria del Fiore), which is inscribed: ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Siena.

Sculptor, goldsmith.

In 1375-1376, Bartolommeo di Tommè collaborated on the statues of the apostles for the tower chapel of the Palazzo Pubblico.

Article

Malcolm W. Norris

A term used to describe any inscription, figure, shield of arms, or other device engraved for a commemorative purpose in flat sheet brass. It is found as early as 1486 in the will of William Norreys of Ash-next-Sandwich, Kent. Such memorials became established in 13th-century Europe as a very satisfactory form of inlay for a grave slab. They recorded the death and status of the deceased and, particularly important, attracted prayers for the soul in Purgatory. Monumental brasses are therefore usually found in churches....

Article

French, 14th – 15th century, male.

Born 1341; died 1410.

Founder, metal worker.

Burgundy School.

He made the cross on the tower, the bronze columns of the altar, a belfry, pulpit and the weather vane at Champol Abbey for Philip the Bold.

Article

G. Kreytenberg

Italian sculptor and goldsmith. He is documented in Siena, Massa Marittima, and Messina. He was the son of Goro di Guccio Ciuti (d before 1311), a Florentine sculptor who, with Lapo and Donato, assistants of Nicola Pisano, was granted citizenship in Siena in ...

Article

Barbara Drake Boehm

Italian goldsmith. He was the most important goldsmith in Siena in the first half of the 14th century after Guccio di Mannaia, to whom he may possibly have been apprenticed. Despite the fact that many contemporary Sienese translucent enamels have been attributed to Tondino, there is supporting evidence for only three objects. A chalice (London, BM) bears his name and that of an associate, ...

Article

Italian goldsmith. His earliest documented work dates from 1286, when together with his brother Tallino he made a chalice, identified by Gai (1988) with the chalice of S Atto (Pistoia, Mus. Dioc.), for the Opera di S Jacopo; he was paid 48 lire for this work on ...

Article

Italian goldsmith. One of the most important goldsmiths of the period, he is first documented on 5 July 1292 in a payment for a seal, in which he is referred to as ‘Guccio Mannaie aurifici’. A further three payments for seals are recorded on 1 January 1294...

Article

Italian goldsmith. Trained in the workshop of the Florentine goldsmith Francesco di Niccolò, he matriculated in the goldsmiths’ guild, the Arte della Seta, in 1358. In 1361 Francesco was commissioned to execute nine narrative reliefs of episodes from the Old Testament for the antependium of the silver altar of S Jacopo in Pistoia (for further discussion of the altar ...

Article

Helen Geddes

Italian goldsmith. The first reference to Ugolino is in 1329 when he and his sons, Ugolino the younger and Giovanni, sold a house. In 1332, Ugolino received compensation in connection with the commission of a chalice that the Comune of Siena was to give to the condottiere ...

Article

Cordelia Warr

Hungarian saint and patron. She was the daughter of the Arpád King Andrew II of Hungary (reg 1205–35) and Gertrude of Andechs-Meran (1185–1213) and married Ludwig IV, Landgrave of Thuringia (reg 1217–27) in 1221. After Ludwig’s death (11 September 1227...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Active in Pisac.1315.

Painter.

Feuccio di Paolo may also have worked as a goldsmith.

Article

Cristina De Benedictis

Italian painter and illuminator. He was the son of the goldsmith Filippuccio (fl 1273–93). In 1948 Longhi attributed a fresco of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with SS James and John the Evangelist in the church of S Jacopo, San Gimignano, and others in the tower of the Palazzo del Popolo there to Memmo, who is documented as having lived and worked in the town from ...