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John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of ...

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Manuel Castiñeiras

Gilded copper altar (c. 1150; Stockholm, Stat. Hist. Mus.) from Broddetorp Chuch in Västergötland (Sweden). The Broddetorp Altar is one of the so-called ‘golden altars’ that are characteristic of Romanesque metalwork from the second quarter of the 12th century to the beginning of the 13th in Scandinavia. The altars were likely produced in ...

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G. Reinheckel

German metalworker and enameller. A monk in the monastery of St Pantaleon, Cologne, he was one of the principal masters of its important workshop and among the most outstanding German metalworkers of the Romanesque period. His name is engraved as part of an inscription on a small portable altar (ex-Welf treasure; Berlin, Tiergarten, Kstgewmus.), produced ...

Article

Griffin Murray

Large processional cross (h. 760 mm; Dublin, N. Mus.) made in 1123 to enshrine a relic of the True Cross. It is the most important surviving piece of Irish 12th-century metalwork. Principally consisting of cast copper-alloy plates fixed to a wooden core, it was embellished with gold, silver, niello, glass, enamel, and rock crystal. It was made in a workshop at Roscommon under the patronage of Turlough O’Connor, the Connaught king and the most powerful ruler in Ireland at that time. The master craftsman responsible for it was ...

Article

Francis Woodman

English cleric, sculptor, and possibly metalworker. A native of West Dereham in Norfolk, he has sometimes been identified with Master Elias, steward to Gilbert de Glanville, Bishop of Rochester. He served in the household of Hubert Walter, Bishop of Salisbury and later Archbishop of Canterbury (...

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Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the ...

Article

Kirstin Kennedy

A rare and outstanding example of early 12th-century English metalwork (h. 580 mm; 5.76 kg; London, V&A; see fig.). The candlestick is an intricate piece of openwork, cast in three sections using the cire perdue (‘lost wax’) process with an alloy of high silver content. The gilded candlestick’s dense foliage ornament includes climbing figures and dragon-like beasts, with the four symbols of the evangelists around the central knop of the stem. The candlestick received its name from the inscription on its stem, which states it was donated to the church (later cathedral) of St Peter, in Gloucester: + ...

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Walloon School, 12th century, male.

Active in France, England, Germany.

Goldsmith, enameller.

A native of Huy, this artist lived in Liège but travelled in Germany, England and France to carry out commissions. This suggests the reputation he had as an enamel worker. In 1145 Abbot Suger himself asked him to make the great cross of St-Denis, so admired was he by his contemporaries. Unfortunately very few of his works have survived: a reliquary of St Anthony and those of St Mengold and St Domitien, which have been restored....

Article

Søren Kaspersen

Gilded copper altar frontals found in seven parish churches in Jutland (Lisbjerg, Odder, Tamdrup, Sindbjerg, Ølst, Sahl, and Stadil), one in Schleswig, Germany (Quern), and one in southern Sweden (Broddetorp), as a general rule they date from c. 1135–1225 and were most likely made in different workshops in Jutland. An altar frontal in Lyngsjö Church in Scania (now Skåne, Sweden) is stylistically close to the gilded copper altar frontal (...

Article

Neil Stratford

Metalworker and illuminator, active in England. The Gesta sacristarum of Bury St Edmunds Abbey, written in the late 13th century, mentions magister Hugo three times. He ‘sculpted’ (insculptas) two metal doors (valvas) for the church façade, surpassing even himself in this wonderful work; Hervey the sacrist, for his brother Prior Talbot (...

Article

A. M. Koldeweij

South Netherlandish metalworker. According to a note appended c. 1240 to his name in the necrology of Neufmoustier Abbey, he was a monk and worker in precious metals. The note records that he was an exceptionally able goldsmith and had produced many shrines (feretra...

Article

Pippin Michelli

Irish metalworker. He was probably trained by the metalworker Nechtain at Clonmacnois. Máel Ísu’s style, a mixture of revived Insular art and imported Scandinavian styles, is similar to Nechtain’s, a typical product of Clonmacnois, except that Máel Ísu favoured the rounded Urnes manner of execution (...

Article

Jutland  

Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (...

Article

Polish, 12th century, male.

Sculptor, goldsmith.

Leopardus was a Benedictine monk in Zwiefalten. He made a large crucifix for the monastery church. The bronze doors of the cathedral in Gniezno are attributed to him.

Article

Paul Binski

Term used to describe a convention of drapery representation in the figurative arts in north-western Europe between c. 1180 and c. 1240. It was typical of metalwork, sculpture, and painting executed in the region between the River Meuse and the Ile-de-France and is one of the most distinctive features of art of the so-called ...

Article

P. Cornelius Claussen

French goldsmith. His known works indicate that he was one of the leading metalworkers of his day and an early exponent of the classicizing styles around 1200 that formed a transition between Romanesque and Gothic. In his two dated signatures, nicolaus virdunensis (1181) on the enamel decoration of the former pulpit in Klosterneuburg Abbey, Austria (...

Article

12th century, male.

Active at the end of the 12th century.

Born 1130; died 1205.

Goldsmith, enameller.

Moselle school.

Nicolas de Verdun worked at Tournai, Cologne and Vienna, following in the footsteps of Godefroid de Huy and adopting the new iconography of Abbot Suger. He is known above all for the reredos in Klosterneuburg, Austria (completed in ...

Article

Tessa Garton

Italian bronze-caster. According to inscriptions, he made bronze doors for churches in Troia, Capua and Benevento. The doors of Troia Cathedral were commissioned by Bishop William II of Troia. The main doors, completed in 1119, include an image of Oderisius, while the south doors, completed in ...

Article

Opizari  

N. Yezerskaya

Georgian goldsmiths and silversmiths. They were outstanding exponents of the traditional techniques of embossing and chasing in silver gilt (see Georgia, Republic of, §V, 1, (i)). They worked in a monastery at Opiza (Turk. Bağular) in the Georgian princedom of Tao-Klardjeti (now north-east Turkey), where Beka Opizari may have been Beshken Opizari’s pupil....

Article

A. M. Koldeweij

South Netherlandish metalworker. In 1125 a Renerus aurifaber is mentioned in a charter of Albero I, Prince-Bishop of Liège (reg 1123–8), to the collegiate church of Huy. At the time aurifaber could refer not only to goldsmiths but also to workers in other metals (except iron). Nothing more is known of ...