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Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Term used to describe the distinctive relief decoration commonly used on stucco, wood and other arts of the early Islamic period. Characterized by a slanted cut (Ger. Schrägeschnitt), the decoration usually consists of rhythmic and symmetrical repetitions of curved lines with spiral terminals. The style is first documented in the mid-9th century ...

Article

Alison Manges Nogueira

Monumental, marble paschal Candlestick of the late 12th to early 13th century with reliefs signed by Nicolaus de Angelo and Vassallettus now in S Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome. The imposing column (h. 5.6 m), adorned with six registers of reliefs and surmounted by a fluted candle holder, rests upon a base of sculpted lions, sphinxes, rams and female figures. The upper and lower reliefs bear vegetal and ornamental patterns while the three central registers portray ...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the ...

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Enameller.

This artist was active in Limoges.

Article

Walloon School, 12th century, male.

Active in France, England, Germany.

Goldsmith, enameller.

A native of Huy, this artist lived in Liège but travelled in Germany, England and France to carry out commissions. This suggests the reputation he had as an enamel worker. In 1145 Abbot Suger himself asked him to make the great cross of St-Denis, so admired was he by his contemporaries. Unfortunately very few of his works have survived: a reliquary of St Anthony and those of St Mengold and St Domitien, which have been restored....

Article

Spanish, 12th century, male.

Active in Ávila at the end of the 12th century.

Sculptor.

One of the most remarkable of 12th century Spanish sculptors, he was the principal decorator of the west porch of the S Vicente Cathedral in Avila.

Article

Spanish, 12th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 12th century.

Painter. Frescoes, decorative art.

Catalan School, Castile School.

This artist probably worked with the Master of Tahull and may, like him, have been of foreign origin. He decorated the apse of Sta Maria, Tahull (Taüll), Lérida; he then worked on the decoration of the Hermitage of Vera Cruz, Maderuelo, in Castile, from which he gets his name. Like the Master of Tahull he respected the canons of the Byzantine style....

Article

Spanish, 12th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 12th century.

Painter. Frescoes, decorative art.

Catalan School.

This artist worked on the church of S Climent, Tahull (Taüll), which was consecrated in 1123. His decoration of this church is one of the finest examples of the traditional Byzantine style and it served as a model for decorative painting throughout the whole Huesca region. It is thought the artist was a foreigner, probably an Italian. He knew how to give to each fold, each gesture, each face a fullness, an intense meaning that in no way spoils the overall effect. Each of the figures is deliberately stylised, with highly schematised characteristics, showing how well he understood monumental art. After decorating this church, the Master of Tahull certainly went to Isabena to work on Roda Cathedral. His sense of line and his skilful use of colour make him one of the foremost figures in Catalan Romanesque art....

Article

12th century, male.

Active at the end of the 12th century.

Born 1130; died 1205.

Goldsmith, enameller.

Moselle school.

Nicolas de Verdun worked at Tournai, Cologne and Vienna, following in the footsteps of Godefroid de Huy and adopting the new iconography of Abbot Suger. He is known above all for the reredos in Klosterneuburg, Austria (completed in ...

Article

German, 12th century, male.

Active in the Bonn areac.1181.

Enameller.

Reginaldus was a monk.