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Article

Kirk Ambrose

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in ...

Article

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders....

Article

Michael Gullick

Term used to describe the study of physical aspects of the medieval handwritten book or manuscript. Codicological studies are also described, or referred to, as the archaeology of the book. As a discipline or science the fundamental philosophical and methodological principles of codicology are still being debated. For some, codicology is an area of study more or less complete in itself: the examination of materials, tools, and techniques. For others, codicology only supports the older disciplines of textual analysis, criticism, and transmission, the study of scribes and scripts, the history of illumination and decoration, and the history of book collections and libraries....

Article

Olle Granath

Swedish painter. Following a childhood spent in Brazil, he moved to Sweden in 1939. He studied archaeology and the history of art, specializing in pre-Columbian manuscripts, and he showed an interest in the theatre. In the early 1950s he worked as a journalist, wrote plays and poems and in ...

Article

David Leatherbarrow

English architect, writer and illustrator. A brilliant draughtsman, speculative archaeologist and an avid reader of ancient myth, he was one of England’s most remarkable visionary architects. His career began in 1787, when he was apprenticed to James Wyatt. Two years later he entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won the Silver Medal in his first year and the Gold in the next. He then left for Italy, where he visited all the important Classical sites as well as less well-known sites in the Roman Campagna. He usually travelled with painters and architects, most often with C. H. Tatham and G. A. Wallis (...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese calligrapher, painter, archaeologist, collector, poet and government official. He was born into a wealthy, scholarly family, received a classical education and as a youth of 16 founded a school in Guangzhou (Canton) and a publishing company in Shanghai; at 17 he enrolled in law school at the Imperial University in Beijing. His studies were interrupted two years later by the Boxer Rebellion of ...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born in Perugia; died 1880.

Painter, copyist, archaeologist. Historical subjects, religious subjects.

Mariano Guardabassi was a pupil of Silvestro Valeri at the Accademia in Perugia and of Cornelius in Rome, in whose studio he painted the Death of Moses that is now with his ...

Article

T. I. Zeymal’

Site in Tajikistan, 70 km east of Pendzhikent, where the Kum River falls into the Zarafshan. After a chance find on a high cliff (Mt Mug) of a basket containing fragments of manuscripts written in an unknown language, excavations were begun in November 1933 by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the Tajik section. The remains of a castle (19.5×18.5 m; 7th century–early 8th) were uncovered, with a corridor on the north side providing access to five narrow (2 m) vaulted rooms used to store provisions. An upper residential storey was destroyed. The microclimate of the high location helped to preserve organic materials that would have had no chance of preservation under normal conditions. Some 500 objects were retrieved, the majority of which are in the Oriental Department of the Hermitage, St Petersburg. The 150 fragments of ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1763; died 26 June 1819.

Draughtsman, archaeologist.

From 1785 to 1801, Samuel Lysons exhibited views of old English buildings at the Royal Academy in London. He drew and etched the plates for his books Enumeration of the Roman Ruins Discovered at Woodchester in 1797...

Article

Alison Stones

French town in the Dordogne that grew up on the site of Roman Vesunna. Roman remains include the arena, temple and villa, the latter now the site of a museum of Roman art designed by Jean Nouvel. Several medieval houses preserve fragments of 13th-century wall paintings. The former medieval cathedral dedicated to St Etienne is located between the temple and arena and preserves several bays of its early 12th-century choir with a flat east end vaulted with domes on pendentives. Similar domes are found at the 12th-century abbey church of St Front, originally outside the walls and since ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 October 1853, in Old Alresford; died 21 December 1940, in South Gorley.

Engraver (etching), illustrator, textile designer, archaeologist. Scenes with figures.

George Heywood Maunoir Sumner trained as a lawyer but chose to pursue a career in art. He lived and worked in London, where he played an important role in the revival of wood engraving. He was a member of the Fitzroy Picture Society, through whom he published reproductions of his prints. He exhibited in London from ...

Article

Gretchen G. Fox

Italian architect. As a young draughtsman he contributed illustrations to books popularizing Roman archaeology, such as Edward Dodwell’s I sette colli di Roma (London, 1829). Vespignani trained under Luigi Poletti and worked with him (1837–69) on the reconstruction of S Paolo fuori le mura, continuing the work on Poletti’s death. Three sides of the great quadriporticus were finished (...