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French museum director, writer, graphic artist, collector, archaeologist and diplomat. He was the son of a provincial aristocrat. He went to Paris to further his law studies c. 1765 but entered the studio of Noël Hallé. He became Gentleman-in-Ordinary to Louis XV and was appointed keeper of the collection of engraved gems and medals that Mme de Pompadour had left to the King. In ...

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David Leatherbarrow

English architect, writer and illustrator. A brilliant draughtsman, speculative archaeologist and an avid reader of ancient myth, he was one of England’s most remarkable visionary architects. His career began in 1787, when he was apprenticed to James Wyatt. Two years later he entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won the Silver Medal in his first year and the Gold in the next. He then left for Italy, where he visited all the important Classical sites as well as less well-known sites in the Roman Campagna. He usually travelled with painters and architects, most often with C. H. Tatham and G. A. Wallis (...

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Joachim Hahn

Cave site in south-west France in the Pyrenees. It is one of the outstanding European sites of the Upper Palaeolithic period (c. 40,000–c. 10,000 bp; see also Prehistoric Europe, §II): in addition to a long stratigraphic sequence indicating Mousterian, Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian occupations, it has yielded examples of wall art and numerous pieces of portable art, now in the Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Excavations in the two huge halls—the ‘Salle d’Isturitz’ and the ‘Salle Saint-Martin’—were conducted from ...

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Sheila R. Canby

American archaeologist, curator and collector . Trained as an artist at the Slade School, University College, London, in 1920 he joined the graphic section of the Egyptian Expedition to Thebes, organized by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. During the 1920s and 1930s Wilkinson painted facsimiles of Egyptian tomb paintings in the museum collection, and he joined museum excavations in the Kharga Oasis (Egypt) and Qasr-i Abu Nasr and Nishapur (Iran). Transferred to the curatorial staff of the museum in ...