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Article

Els Maréchal

Belgian painter, draughtsman, printmaker and film maker. He studied book illustration and typography at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture et des Arts Décoratifs from 1944 to 1946. In 1947 he became a member of the Jeune Peinture Belge group and had his first one-man exhibition in the Galerie Lou Cosyn in Brussels. In ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Ferrara.

Film maker, painter, writer. Landscapes.

An intuitive painter, Michelangelo Antonioni uses watercolour, oil and sometimes unexpected materials. He then makes photographic enlargements of his paintings and exhibits the enlargements. On several occasions he has taken his painter's brush to his films, colouring in natural settings artificially, notably in ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1992.

Born 8 September 1934, in Havana.

Painter, draughtsman, graphic designer, film maker.

Armas studied Cuban archaeology, and rupestrian art in particular. He was a caricaturist at first, then a graphic designer and film maker. He established the cartoon department at the Cuban institute of cinematic arts. He won several prizes for this work. In ...

Article

Andrew Wilson

Austrian performance artist, draughtsman, painter and film maker. He studied commercial graphic art at the Akademie für Angewandte Kunst in Vienna between 1957 and 1960. Following visits to Spain and the Venice Biennale of 1960, he started to paint gestural abstractions and came into contact with the Austrian painter Alfons Schilling (...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 16 February 1868, in Whitewater, Wisconsin; died 21 October 1952, in Los Angeles, California.

Photographer (photogravure, orotypes), author, filmmaker.

Portraits, landscapes, ethnographic subjects.

Edward Sherriff Curtis began his photographic career as an assistant in a studio in St. Paul, Minnesota, and became a partner in another studio in ...

Article

Fiona Bradley

Spanish Catalan painter, draughtsman, illustrator, sculptor, writer and film maker. One of the most prolific artists of the 20th century, his fantastic imagery and flamboyant personality also made him one of the best known. His most significant artistic contribution, however, was through his association with ...

Article

Moroccan, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 26 April 1934, in El Jadida.

Painter, draughtsman, lithographer, collage artist, film maker.

André Elbaz studied at Rabat's school of graphic art while at the same time taking drama classes at the city's theatre school. He began experimenting with collage while making posters for his theatre group, Mazagan, in El Jadida. Following a trip to France in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 April 1944, in Duffel.

Installation artist, performance artist, painter, draughtsman.

Conceptual Art.

Filip Francis initially used traditional graphic schemes, but then saw that film and video were better suited to his performances. As his methods of experimentation are different in every case, they can only be interpreted during the course of his personal journey; Francis himself considers that they constitute his diary. His fundamental aim is to highlight the concept of space-time. According to some commentators, his performances contain a certain humour: for example, either during live action, or recalled through film or video, he wrote the same number, the same word or the same insult in different languages, over a predetermined space of time; ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1958, in Fortaleza.

Painter, installation artist. Multimedia.

José Guedes is a self-taught artist and lives and works in Fortaleza. He uses photographic images and video in his work. In the video installation he showed at the Capc, Musée d'Art Contemporain in Bordeaux in ...

Article

Barbara Lange and Andrés Mario Zervigón

German photomontagist, draughtsman, typographer, stage designer, and film director. After a difficult childhood owing to the persecution of his father for his political beliefs, he studied art at the Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich from 1907 to 1911, specializing in advertising art. In 1912 he took his first job in a paper packaging company (for which he completed graphic design work) in Mannheim, moving to Berlin in ...

Article

Lee M. Edwards

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in ...

Article

Australian painter. He studied graphic design from 1954 to 1957 at the Swinburne Technical College in Melbourne, where Robert Rooney was a fellow student. For the next two years he worked as a graphic artist for ABC Television in Melbourne and in 1964 had his first one-man show at the Toorak Galleries there. His early work of the mid- to late 1960s was based on a reduction of mundane objects into a geometrical pattern. ...

Article

Diane Kirkpatrick

Image with the illusion of three-dimensionality, recorded on light-sensitive plates, paper or film. It is made by using a laser beam of high-intensity coherent monochromatic light. The original holographic process was discovered in the late 1940s by the British scientist Dennis Gabor (1900–77), who gave it its name; deriving from the Greek words ...

Article

Judi Freeman

French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas....

Article

Canadian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1957, in Hamilton.

Photographer, video artist. Multimedia.

Lewis studied conceptual photography in Europe with Victor Burgin. Through his photographic work, he became interested in social problems, such as feminism, psychoanalysis and the place of art in the public sphere. Since the middle of the 1990s, he has devoted himself to the creation of cinematic works. His first production, ...

Article

Aurélie Verdier

Australian sculptor. He spent 20 years in Australian and British television and advertising, where he was already making the mannequins that he later adapted to sculptural purposes. He started his artistic career when collaborating with his mother-in-law, Paula Rego for the Spellbound exhibition at the Hayward Gallery in ...

Article

Robert Smith

Australian cartoonist, printmaker, writer, illustrator, film maker and sculptor. After employment as an illustrator in Melbourne (1949–52), he worked in London as a freelance illustrator and cartoonist (1954–60). On the return journey to Australia he formed a lasting interest in South-east Asia, publishing the resulting perceptive and deceptively simple drawings with commentary in the first of his many illustrated books. He worked as a freelance artist in Melbourne until his appointment as resident cartoonist for the Sydney ...

Article

April A. Eisman

East German graphic artist, painter, photographer, filmmaker, and action artist. He is best known as a pioneer of Correspondence art in East Germany. He studied graphic arts and painting at the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin-Charlottenburg (1948–53) under Alexander Camaro and Wolfgang Hoffmann. After graduating, he joined the Association of Visual Artists in East Germany and worked as an independent (...

Article

Janet Marstine

American painter, illustrator, designer, playwright, and film director. He studied industrial design at the Spring Garden School in Philadelphia from 1888 to 1890. In 1893 he became an illustrator at the Philadelphia Press. Simultaneously he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he met Robert Henri, John Sloan, William J. Glackens, and George Luks. Their style of urban realism prompted him to depict the bleak aspects of city life. In ...

Article

Grischka Petri

German painter, sculptor, décollagist, composer, video artist, and performance artist. He was one of the fathers of the European Happening movement. Vostell studied typography, lithography, and painting in Cologne, Wuppertal, Paris, and Düsseldorf (1950–58). In 1959 he married Mercedes Guardado Olivenza in Cáceres, Spain. Early in his career he discovered ...