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Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France....

Article

Michèle Lavallée

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed....

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

K. Somervell

English family of glassware enamellers. In 1760 William Beilby (1705–65), a goldsmith, moved his family from Durham to Newcastle upon Tyne, where his son Ralph Beilby (1743–1817) worked as a heraldic engraver. In 1755 William Beilby jr (1740–1819) was apprenticed to the Birmingham enameller ...

Article

Bullion  

Gordon Campbell

Metal knob or boss used for decoration on a book or harness. The term can also denote a bull’s eye in glass and (in early modern English) trunk-hose that is puffed out at the top. It is also used to describe a heavy textile fringe in curtains, pelmets and the top covers of seat furniture....

Article

Criblé  

Gordon Campbell

Type of engraving on metal or wood or glass; such engravings depict shade or half-tones through the use of small dots. Dotted prints (Fr. criblé; Ger. Schrotblatt) made by relief-engraving on metal were produced by goldsmiths in the second half of the 15th century in the Netherlands, parts of the Rhine, Cologne, Basle and Lake Constance....

Article

Gordon Campbell

German architect and designer. He published ornamental designs (including grotesques) for artists working in gold, silver, glass and lacquer.

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 7 March 1912, in St-Étienne; died 5 December 1995, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator, medallist. Wall decorations, designs for tapestries, designs for mosaics, designs for stained glass, frescoes, ceramics.

Jacques Despierre entered the studio of Lucien Simon at the École Nationale Superieur des Beaux-Arts in Paris in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Swedish drinking bowl, usually silver but sometimes glass. Traditional forms include one or two handles and sometimes include a cover; contemporary designs include versions that can hang from a strap around the neck.

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 19 November 1865, in Hamburg; died 11 June 1902, in Badenweiler.

Painter, decorative artist, illustrator, engraver, designer, ceramicist, textile designer. Portraits, landscapes, flowers. Designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries, ex-libris plates, advertising posters, fabrics, ceramics, metal objects, ironware, lamps, furniture, typefaces, jewellery, wallpaper...

Article

Cordelia Warr

Hungarian saint and patron. She was the daughter of the Arpád King Andrew II of Hungary (reg 1205–35) and Gertrude of Andechs-Meran (1185–1213) and married Ludwig IV, Landgrave of Thuringia (reg 1217–27) in 1221. After Ludwig’s death (11 September 1227...

Article

Émail  

Gordon Campbell

Émail ink is the ink used on glass and porcelain; émail ombrant is a form of pottery decoration (introduced in the 1840s) in which the impressions of the design appear as shadows; émail brun is not an enamel, but a medieval technique whereby an oil varnish (or linseed oil) is burnt into metal (e.g. in the Corona Lucis at Buckfast Abbey in Devon)....

Article

Enamel  

Marit Guinness Aschan and Rika Smith McNally

Vitreous or glass paste used in a variety of ways to decorate a metal or, more rarely, ceramic surface. The word ‘enamel’ is of obscure origin. It probably derives from smelzan (Old High Ger.: ‘to smelt’) and esmail (Old Fr.). The Greek philosopher Philostratos Lemnios wrote that ‘barbarians…pour these colours into bronze moulds, so that the colours become hard as stone’ (...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active in Liège.

Born 1585, according to the Grove.

Glass painter.

Renier Flémal was the father of Bertholet, Willem, Renier the Younger and a fourth son, Hendrik, who was a goldsmith. Renier the Elder collaborated with Jean Nivar on the stained glass windows in the church of St Paul in Liège depicting ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 22 October 1920, in Anzin.

Sculptor, medallist, designer. Monuments, designs for stained glass.

Jules France studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Valenciennes, at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs in Paris. He received numerous prizes and awards including the Premier Grand Prix de Rome for medals in ...

Article

Goblet  

Gordon Campbell

Drinking-cup of metal or glass, properly bowl-shaped and without handles, sometimes mounted on a foot and fitted with a cover.

Article

Georg Germann, Melissa Ragain and Pippa Shirley

Term applied to a style of architecture and the decorative arts inspired by the Gothic architecture of medieval Europe. It has been particularly widely applied to churches but has also been used to describe castellated mansions, collegiate buildings, and houses. The Gothic Revival has also been described by many scholars as a movement, rather than style, for in the mid-19th century it was associated with and propagated by religious and political faith. From a hesitant start in the mid-18th century in England and Scotland, in the 19th century it became one of the principal styles of building throughout the world and continued in some huge projects until well into the 20th century (e.g. ...

Article

Christiane Andersson

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media....