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Gordon Campbell

Israeli designer, active in Britain. In 1981 Arad founded, with Caroline Thorman, One Off Ltd, a design studio, workshops and showroom in Covent Garden, London. In 1989, again with Caroline Thorman, he founded Ron Arad Associates, an architecture and design practice in Chalk Farm. In ...


An enclosed space open to the sky. The term has been applied to Persian pleasure gardens (see Garden, §V, 4), used as royal hunting grounds; to abundant gardens with animals (e.g. the Garden of Eden;); to the enclosed area before or around a church (also called a ...



Vivian A. Rich

Outdoor place of relaxation and recreation. Parks originated at about the same time, during the 2nd millennium bc, in the ancient Middle East and China as an enclosed hunting reserve for kings and the nobility. Parks remained private recreation grounds until the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Europe, when social pressures and the need for urban reform led to the creation of parks open to all members of society for social and educational benefits....


Timothy Taylor

Hoard comprising 165 silver and silver-gilt drinking vessels, dating to the late 5th century bc–4th, dug up in a garden in the Vratsa district, north-west Bulgaria, in 1986. The hoard contains vessels of Persian, Greek, Thracian and ‘Thraco-Getic’ manufacture and appears to represent a collection of known value, buried at a time of unrest and never recovered. The historical context is perhaps the incursion south of the Danube by the Celts at the time of their meeting with Alexander the Great in ...


Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects ...