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Article

Gordon Campbell

Israeli designer, active in Britain. In 1981 Arad founded, with Caroline Thorman, One Off Ltd, a design studio, workshops and showroom in Covent Garden, London. In 1989, again with Caroline Thorman, he founded Ron Arad Associates, an architecture and design practice in Chalk Farm. In ...

Article

John Seyller

Indian miniature painter , brother of Payag. Balchand began his long career in the imperial Mughal atelier with figural illuminations on at least three pages (fols 17r, 33v, 60v) of the Bāharistān (‘Spring garden’) of Jamiz of 1595 (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Elliot 254). The small, repetitive figures in two lightly coloured illustrations in the ...

Article

Bundi  

Asok Kumar Das

City in Rajasthan, India. It flourished in the 17th–18th centuries ad as capital of the state of the same name. It contains a wide variety of palaces, mansions (hāvelīs), temples, stepwells and gardens. The city is dominated by the Taragarh hill-fort, founded by the Rajput king ...

Article

Chinese, 13th century, male.

Born in Qiantang (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Song dynasty.

Chen Qingbo was a member of the Hangzhou Painting Academy during the Baoyu period (1253-1258). He was a landscape artist and often depicted scenes of West Lake, Hangzhou.

Article

Chen Yi  

Chinese, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born 1469, in Ningpo (Zhejiang); died 1583.

Painter.

Chen Yi was a scholar, calligrapher and landscape artist who lived in Nanjing. He was an admirer of Su Dongpo and a friend of Wen Zhengming.

Article

Chinese, 16th – 17th century, male.

Born 1565, in Xiuning (Anhui); died 1643.

Painter. Landscapes.

Cheng Jiasui was a poet and landscape artist who worked in the styles of the great masters of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368). He lived in Jiading (Jiangsu).

Cologne (Mus. für Ostasiatische Kunst): ...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

Japanese tea ceremony master, designer and construction supervisor of numerous palaces, castles and gardens. He was one of the most influential figures in Japanese art during the early 17th century. He is noted for the courtly refinement of his designs, which were elegant yet understated, innovative yet respectful of traditions. Few of the many buildings and gardens attributed to him remain in their original form, but his style is found throughout much of Japan. A disciple in his youth of ...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 14th century.

Born in Guixi (Jiangxi).

Painter.

Fang Congyi, a Taoist monk at the Shangqing temple in his native province, is known as a landscape artist and for his spontaneous, splashy style and his rapid execution with a loaded brush. He gives a very subtle rendering of misty landscapes. Highly appreciated in his time, his style is reminiscent of that of the great landscape painter Gao Kegong (c....

Article

Fu Mei  

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born 1628; died 1682.

Painter.

Fu Mei was the son of the painter Fu Shan (1605-1684). Like his father, he was a poet, calligrapher and seal carver, but above all a landscape artist, known for the atmosphere evoked in his paintings....

Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born 1634, in Suzhou (Jiangsu); died 1708.

Painter. Landscapes.

Gao Jian is known as a landscape artist.

Beijing (Palace Mus.): River Landscape with Wooded Hills (colour)

London (British Mus.): Landscape in Autumn Rain (signed and dated 1694)

Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Activec.1623-1631.

Born in Siming (Zhejiang).

Painter, draughtsman. Landscapes, architectural views, gardens, birds, flowers.

Gao Yang was the son-in-law of Zhao Bei. He painted mostly flowers, birds and rocks, but towards the end of his career also produced landscapes.

Cologne (Mus. für Ostasiatische Kunst): ...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

Buddhist temple and garden near Nara in the Sōraku District, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is a temple of the Pure Land (Jōdo) sect of Esoteric Buddhism. The present compound contains a honden (main hall), a pagoda and a pond garden. Alone among Pure Land temples, Jōruriji retains its original 12th-century garden designed to look like the Western Paradise. Temple records indicate that the temple was established in ...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

Japanese garden in the city of Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture. Together with the Kōrakuen in Okayama (see Okayama, §2) and the Kenrokuen in Kanazawa (see Kanazawa, §2, (ii)), it is considered one of Japan’s three notable daimyo gardens. In 1665 Tokugawa Mitsukuni (...

Article

Joan H. Pachner

American sculptor and designer. He was the son of an American writer mother and Japanese poet father and was brought up in Japan (1906–18) before being sent to the USA to attend high school in Indiana (1918–22). In 1922 he moved to Connecticut, where he was apprenticed to the sculptor ...

Article

An enclosed space open to the sky. The term has been applied to Persian pleasure gardens (see Garden, §V, 4), used as royal hunting grounds; to abundant gardens with animals (e.g. the Garden of Eden;); to the enclosed area before or around a church (also called a ...

Article

Park  

Vivian A. Rich

Outdoor place of relaxation and recreation. Parks originated at about the same time, during the 2nd millennium bc, in the ancient Middle East and China as an enclosed hunting reserve for kings and the nobility. Parks remained private recreation grounds until the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Europe, when social pressures and the need for urban reform led to the creation of parks open to all members of society for social and educational benefits....

Article

Timothy Taylor

Hoard comprising 165 silver and silver-gilt drinking vessels, dating to the late 5th century bc–4th, dug up in a garden in the Vratsa district, north-west Bulgaria, in 1986. The hoard contains vessels of Persian, Greek, Thracian and ‘Thraco-Getic’ manufacture and appears to represent a collection of known value, buried at a time of unrest and never recovered. The historical context is perhaps the incursion south of the Danube by the Celts at the time of their meeting with Alexander the Great in ...

Article

Leslie Luebbers

American landscape architect and educator. Sasaki taught from 1953 to 1970 at the Harvard Graduate School of Design (HGSD), where he was chairman of the landscape architecture department from 1958 to 1968. In 1953, Sasaki also opened his design practice, which, after several name changes (including Sasaki, Walker and Associates (...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

Japanese Zen master, poet, scholar and garden designer. As spiritual adviser to both Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) and the military leaders who overthrew him, Musō was politically influential and acted as mediator during the civil wars of the 1330s. At various times in his life Musō served as abbot of Nanzenji, one of the various Gozan (Five Mountains) Zen monasteries including Nanzenji in Kyoto (...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

Japanese residential garden in Hōfu (Yamaguchi Prefect.). It was laid out in 1712 by the poet, tea master and Zen practitioner Katsura Tadaharu, a member of the Mōri clan that governed the area. Tadaharu was familiar with the many great Zen gardens of Kyoto, and Tsuki Katsura is unusual in the history of Japanese gardens (...