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Giuliana Ricci and Amedeo Bellini

Italian architect, teacher, restorer and writer. Boito was an important figure in many ways in the cultural life of Italy, and especially Milan, in the second half of the 19th century. He not only taught at the Accademia di Brera and the Istituto Tecnico Superiore for nearly 50 years but also took part in competitions (both as competitor and adjudicator), wrote articles on architecture and restoration for newspapers and periodicals, as well as numerous reports for private individuals and the government, and was active in numerous professional associations. He also served on numerous commissions, particularly after his appointment as Director of the Accademia di Brera in ...

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Conservation is a relatively new discipline which has evolved from a trade of highly skilled craftspeople working mainly with fine art to a profession committed to providing care to vulnerable cultural heritage items. Conservation extends beyond a list of painstaking cleaning and repair tasks to include professional values of ethics, public accountability, scholarship, and acting in consultation to ensure intergenerational access to the cultural heritage. These diverse skills underpin the training of conservators and distinguish the professional from the technician. There are a range of conservation institutions working internationally to communicate the value of conservation, share knowledge, and develop excellence in practice. Professional conservation practice is often focused on an area of specialism, many of which are defined by the materials worked upon, such as fine art, industrial heritage, paper, or archaeology. Other specialisms refer to techniques in practice such as preventive conservation (prevention of damage), conservation science (analytical investigation of materials and decay), and conservation teaching or management. As most conservators choose to specialize in one area, special interest groups have been formed within broader professional bodies....

Article

Deborah Cullen

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family, §1 to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Art historian of Viennese birth. She studied at Vienna University with Josef Strzygoswki, submitting her thesis on Sasanian silver in 1933. The following year she volunteered at the Islamic department of the State Museum in Berlin under Ernst Kühnel, who had succeeded Friedrich Sarre as director three years earlier. In the spring of ...