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Small apse-like chapel, usually projecting from the eastern side of a transept (see Church, fig.).

Article

Aisle  

Longitudinal passage between seats in a church, auditorium or similar building. In a church, the term refers more commonly to the space flanking and parallel to the nave, usually separated from it by columns or piers (see Church, fig.).

Article

Alexander Nagel

An image-bearing structure set on the rear part of the altar (see Altar, §II), abutting the back of the altarblock, or set behind the altar in such a way as to be visually joined with the altar when viewed from a distance. It is also sometimes called a ...

Article

Stephen Heywood

Term applied to medieval ecclesiastical architecture and referring to the deliberate use of differing pier forms in an arcade. Alternation is found in aisled churches throughout western Europe from the 11th to the 14th century. Its purpose is to articulate internal elevations through the subdivision of the main arcades and in some instances to emphasize certain liturgically important areas. In its simplest form the alternating system consists of the use of both the column (cylindrical) and the pier (square or rectangular in section). In antiquity these two types of support had specific functions that were almost always observed: the column supported the horizontal entablature and the pier supported the arch. By the Middle Ages this rule had been abandoned, and both types of support were used for arcades....

Article

Stephen Heywood

The extension of the aisles around the sanctuary of a major aisled church to form a passage or walkway. The ambulatory is found throughout western Europe, especially in France, and was particularly popular between the 11th and 13th centuries. It is often provided with radiating chapels that project from its exterior face. Its function was to provide separate access to the radiating chapels and perhaps originally to facilitate the circulation of pilgrims past relics. The ambulatory with radiating chapels was an important innovation of the ...

Article

Apse  

Semicircular or polygonal vaulted space, usually at the end of a basilica nave (see Church, fig.).

G. Binding: ‘Abside’, Enciclopedia dell’arte medievale, 1 (Rome, 1991), pp. 75–82 S. Ghigonetto: Storia dell’architettura medievale: Una tipologia riscoperta: Le chiese a doppia-abside: Forme e funzioni (Paris, 2000)...

Article

Forecourt of a church or basilica.

J.-P. Caillet: ‘Atrium, péristile et cloître: Des réalités si diverses?’, Der mittelalterliche Kreuzgang: The Medieval Cloister; Le Cloître au Moyen Age: Architektur, Funktion und Programm (Regensburg, 2004), pp. 57–65

Article

R. K. Morris

Globular shaped carving, typically of three stylized leaves clasping a small ball. The most distinctive ornament of English Decorated architecture (c. 1300–c. 1400; see Decorated style), ballflower is commonly employed in rows set in hollow mouldings, varying in diameter from 125 mm on towers to 30 mm on tombs and fittings. True ballflower should be distinguished from other types of globular ornament found occasionally in Late Romanesque and Early Gothic architecture in England and Normandy. Ballflower (sometimes ‘bellflower’) is an antiquarian term, suggesting analogies with a flower bud, or possibly with small bells, as on an animal collar. On the façade of ...

Article

Francis Woodman

A roof boss (Fr. bosse: ‘lump’, ‘knop’) is the block, or keystone, at the intersection of ribs in a rib vault (see Vault; for illustration see Section.). Particularly favoured in European medieval architecture, unnecessarily large blocks were used as a field for sculptural decoration, which both concealed the collision of the different ribs and their mouldings and provided additional dead-weight to assist in countering the thrusts engendered by the vaults themselves. Some Late Gothic English bosses are extremely large; those in the nave of Winchester Cathedral (...

Article

William W. Clark

Mass of masonry or brickwork projecting perpendicularly from a wall to give additional support to that wall along its length or at the corners.

A buttress built either as a part of the wall (engaged) or against it.

Two buttresses meeting at an angle of 90°, usually on a corner or an acute angle of a building (...