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Alastair Laing

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....

Article

Hugo Morley-Fletcher

German porcelain modeller of Swiss birth. Although little is known about his early life, he is recorded as joining the Neudeck factory near Munich in November 1754 as Modellmeister; the factory was later moved to the Nymphenburg Palace, from which it then took its name. From that time until his death he produced one of the most remarkable series of porcelain figures ever modelled. Beginning with small Ovidian gods (e.g. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Danish ceramics factory. In 1759 Johann Nicolaus Otte (1714–80) founded a ceramics factory in Criseby (Schleswig, then a Danish possession and now in Germany), and in 1765 moved it to his nearby estate of Eckernførde. The factory attempted to produce wares that would rival the standard of those from German and French porcelain factories; it closed in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German faience factory founded in Saxony in 1770 by Johann Samuel Friedrich Tännich. The factory initially produced tableware in a Rococo style and later made creamware based on Wedgwood wares, which are sometimes marked as Wedgwood. The factory closed in 1848.

K. Berling: Die Fayence-und Steingutfabrik Hubertusburg...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French pottery near Bourg-en-Bresse (Ain), founded in 1760 by Baron Marron de Meillonnas at his château. The factory produced earthenware in the Rococo style. Its painters included Protais Pidoux (e.g. asparagus dish, Barnard Castle, Bowes Mus.), who worked at Meillonnas from 1763 to 1766. Baron Marron was guillotined in ...

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries....

Article

Margaret Barlow

A renewed interest among artists, writers, and collectors between c. 1820 and 1870 in Europe, predominantly in France, in the Rococo style in painting, the decorative arts, architecture, and sculpture. The revival of the Rococo served diverse social needs. As capitalism and middle-class democracy triumphed decisively in politics and the economy, the affluent and well-born put increasing value on the aristocratic culture of the previous century: its arts, manners and costumes, and luxury goods....