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Patrick Conner

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed ...


Yasuyoshi Saito

Japanese photographer, painter, printmaker and critic. In 1925 he entered the department of yōga (Western-style painting) at the Japanese School of Art in Tokyo. In 1926 he began writing art criticism and in 1927 he left the School, going on in 1930 to study at the School of Oriental Photography, Tokyo. In ...


Richard L. Wilson

Japanese painter, printmaker and antiquarian. He was the second son of Sakai Tadamochi (1735–67), lord of Harima, and the main instigator of the revival of interest in the early 19th century in the Rinpa school of decorative painting (see Japan, §VI, 4, (v)...


Anne Burkus-Chasson

Chinese painter, calligrapher and designer of woodblock-prints. Chen’s inventive depictions of figures, in particular of scholars and winsome gentlewomen, have long been admired (see also China, People’s Republic of, §V, 3, (vii), (d)), although he also painted bird-and-flower subjects and, to a lesser extent, landscapes. His contemporaries also acknowledged his skills as a poet and calligrapher. The appellation ‘Chen of the South, Cui of the North’, as recorded by 17th-century historians, refers to similarities between his archaistic style and that of the painter Cui Zizhong (...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1934, in Mukden, Manchuria (now Shenyang, Liaoning), China; died 8 March 1997.

Engraver, writer.

Masuo Ikeda graduated with a diploma from the art school in Nagano in 1952, and then set up in Tokyo. He is a copper and wood engraver, as well as a silk-screen printer, and is considered one of the most brilliant 20th-century Japanese engravers. Having started in his youth as an oil painter in a style showing the influence of Matisse and Picasso, he then found engraving to be a more suitable medium. The technique of dry point in particular enables him to express his images and thoughts more directly, in a way that is more intimate and warm than with oils. Engraving has the further advantage of benefiting from wider exposure than a painting produced in a single copy. His figurative works are near to everyday life, out of which he produces a sort of poem in colour, drawing inspiration from both Western and Eastern traditions. There is often an underlying eroticism. He was also a writer, and his novel ...


Japanese print designer, book illustrator and writer. Together with Kitao Masayoshi (1764–1824) and Kubo Shunman, he was one of Kitao Shigemasa most brilliant students. He made his début in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) in 1778 with his illustrations for the kibyōshi...


Toru Asano

Japanese printmaker, poet and book designer. He studied at the Tokyo Art School from 1910 to 1915. Influenced by Yumeji Takehisa (1884–1934), a painter of highly popular sentimental portraits of women, and later by Edvard Munch and Vasily Kandinsky, he moved towards the expression of his inner feelings, which he termed lyricism. In ...


Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born 1897, in Ninghai (Zhejiang); died September 1971, in Hangzhou.

Painter, engraver, calligrapher, designer, poet. Animals, landscapes, flowers, portraits. Seals.

Pan Tianshou studied in Hangzhou and was a student of Liu Haisu. He taught traditional painting at the fine arts school in Shanghai in ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

Japanese print designer, painter, poet, writer and lacquer and shell-inlay artist. Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by an uncle. He studied honga (‘true or book pictures’) with the Nanga (literati painting) artist Tabete Ryōtai (1719–74) and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) with ...


Lu Xun  

Eugene Yuejin Wang

Chinese woodcut-printmaker, writer and critic. Already in childhood his imagination was caught by popular fiction illustrations, which were to resurface in his later writing. His sojourn in Japan (1902–9) was a turning-point, convincing him that literature and art rather than medicine made a nation healthy. From ...