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Article

Romanian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 15 June 1903, in Piatra Neamt; died 12 March 1966, in Paris.

Painter (including mixed media), watercolourist, pastellist, sculptor, ceramicist, engraver, draughtsman. Figures, portraits, landscapes, animals.

Surrealist group.

Victor Brauner's father ran a sawmill in Piatra Neamt, a small village in the Carpathian mountains in Romania. Brauner said that his childhood was marked by the atmosphere of a 'small village by the edge of a river', where he watched 'giant tree trunks, tied into rafts, on which people lived as they went down the river'. As a child, he witnessed the spiritualist sessions in which his father participated. After a brief stay in Vienna where he began his schooling and a trip down the Danube, he was back in Romania where he was drafted into compulsory work from 1916 to 1918. A pupil at the Braila evangelical school, he developed a passion for zoology and painted in the Belu cemetery in Bucharest. Between 1921 and 1923, he took courses at the fine arts school and the free academy in Bucharest, then spent time by the Black Sea in Falticeni and Balchík, where he painted his 'Cézannian landscapes'. In 1924, he founded the review ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1909, in London; died 1948, as the result of a car accident.

Painter, potter.

English Surrealist Group.

Thomas Samuel Haile took evening classes at the Clapham School of Art. In 1930 he was awarded a scholarship to study under the potter William Staite Murray at the Royal College of Art in London. In ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 8 December 1902, in Sagua la Grande; died 11 September 1982, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), pastellist, watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, engraver, illustrator, lithographer, potter. Murals.

Surrealist group.

After a brief period at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes San Alejandro in Havana from 1918 to 1923, Lam went to Spain and remained there from 1924 to 1938, first in Madrid and later Barcelona. By 1938 Spain had been devastated by civil war and Lam was forced to move to Paris. Picasso became very fond of Lam and introduced him to André Breton, Max Ernst and Victor Brauner, among others. From 1938 to 1941, Lam participated in the activities of the surrealist group, particularly from 1940 when he found himself in Marseilles with the surrealists who had been driven out of Paris by the war and the invasion of France.In 1940 Lam illustrated Breton's ...

Article

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Spain and also in France from 1919.

Born 20 April 1893, in Barcelona, Spain; died 25 December 1983, in Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Painter (including mixed media/gouache), watercolourist, etcher, lithographer, sculptor, ceramicist, illustrator. Murals, stage sets, tapestries.

Grupo Courbet, Paris Dada Group, Paris Surrealist Group...

Article

José Corredor-Matheos

Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker and decorative artist (see fig.). He was never closely aligned with any movement and was too retiring in his manner to be the object of a personality cult, like his compatriot Picasso, but the formal and technical innovations that he sustained over a very long career guaranteed his influence on 20th-century art. A pre-eminent figure in the history of ...

Article

Melissa McQuillan

Spanish painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, decorative artist and writer, active in France. He dominated 20th-century European art and was central in the development of the image of the modern artist. Episodes of his life were recounted in intimate detail, his comments on art were published and his working methods recorded on film. Painting was his principal medium, but his sculptures, prints, theatre designs and ceramics all had an impact on their respective disciplines. Even artists not influenced by the style or appearance of his work had to come to terms with its implications....

Article

Ana Tapias

Venezuelan painter, ceramicist and sculptor. He started painting around 1942. His work was initially abstract but it became figurative with surrealistic elements, as in The Tetragramist (1943) and Composition (1943–4; both artist’s col.). He attended the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas in Caracas irregularly from ...

Article

Czechoslovak, 20th century, female.

Born 1942.

Sculptor, ceramicist.

Jindra Vikova creates assemblages of mixed volumes where the surfaces are often covered in paintings. All the elements are figurative but with Surrealist perversions.

Apart from in the former Czechoslovakia, she has exhibited in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Germany and Poland....