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Article

Stephen Hill

English archaeologist and architectural historian. The first woman to achieve a first-class honours in modern history at Oxford University, she travelled widely in Europe, Japan and especially the Middle East in the 1890s, achieving fluency in a number of European languages as well as in Persian, Turkish and Arabic. She developed an interest in archaeology and architecture that was reflected in an authoritative set of articles on the Early Byzantine churches of Syria and southern Turkey, based on her travels in ...

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Activec.1070-1080.

Art theorist.

Guo Ruoxu was the author of the most important work on the history of art of the Northern Song period, the Tu Hua Jian Wen zhi (1074), which saw itself as the continuation of the monumental treatise by Zhang Yanyuan, the ...

Article

Lian An  

Chinese, 14th – 15th century, male.

Died at the beginning of the 15th century.

Art theorist.

Lian An is known above all for a brief but famous passage on aesthetic theory in his Jinchuan Yuxie Ji, a posthumous collection of his writings. The passage is a commentary on the distinction made by Su Dongpo (...

Article

(). American writer. He taught English at Columbia University, New York, from 1919 to 1958, and became professor there in 1947. He devoted a lifetime’s research to tracing the origins of the legends of King Arthur, and to proving that they had their roots in Celtic mythology and were passed to the Continent by Breton and other story-tellers. Loomis also pursued an interest in art and art history; many of his early publications dealt with aspects of medieval Arthurian iconography, and it was this art-historical research that led him to postulate the Celtic origins of the legends. He continued, where relevant, to use his knowledge of medieval art to support his arguments. His ...

Article

Japanese, 16th century, male.

Painter.

Some art historians associate or rather identify Nobuharu with Hasegawa Tohaku (1539-1610), even though many details of the latter’s life are obscure. The name Nobuharu appears on several Buddhist portraits and paintings that are characterised by a very fine but slightly sentimental style. It is on account of this sentimentality that other art historians do not identify the two artists with each other....

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born 1007, in Luling (Jiangxi); died 1072.

Art theorist.

Ouyang Xiu was a famous statesman, known as a man of letters and an aesthetician. As with many men of letters, his writings turn to art criticism when dealing with the many inscriptions he selected for the ...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active during the first third of the 14th century.

Art historian, art theorist, art critic.

Tang Hou was the author of two works, the Gu Jin Hua Jin, a critical assessment of the work of some 60 artists from the period of the Three Kingdoms (...

Article

Chinese, 9th century, male.

Born c. 810; died c. 880.

Art critic, art historian, collector.

The scion of an illustrious line of officials, Zhang Yanyuan probably took his first steps as an art historian in his family’s own rich collections. He wrote a monumental work of art history, the ...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 14th century.

Painter.

Zhu Tong was an official and painter whose collected writings, Fu pou ji, contain a passage in which he works out a theory of painting according to which painting and calligraphy share the same essence. For Zhu, the cardinal principle in painting is not likeness but the calligraphic quality of the brushstroke....