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David Bindman

English printmaker, painter and poet. His reputation as a visual artist increased during the 20th century to the extent that his art is as well known as his poetry (see fig.). Yet in his own mind Blake never completely separated the two, and his most original work is to be found in hand-printed books of prophecy, which developed a personal mythology of limitless intellectual ambition. In these books, text and design are completely integrated in what he called ‘illuminated’ printing. He also made many pen and watercolour drawings, prints in various media and a small number of tempera paintings, but even in these his broader aims were primarily theological and philosophical: he saw the arts in all their forms as offering insights into the metaphysical world and therefore potentially redemptive of a humanity he believed to have fallen into materialism and doubt....

Article

German writer, statesman, scientist, historian and theorist. By virtue of his prodigious literary output, his writings on art (notably in collaboration with Friedrich Schiller), his patronage as chief minister of Weimar, the extraordinary variety of his interests, and his sheer longevity, he had a profound influence on European culture....

Article

John Leighton

French painter and museum official. The son of a master mason, he revealed an early talent for drawing in his copies of his father’s collection of prints after François Boucher and Vernet family, §1. After studying with an unidentified Italian landscape painter, he became a pupil of ...

Article

Howard Caygill

German theorist. He was the most consistent and influential critic of German Enlightenment philosophy and aesthetic theory. His impeccable Enlightenment pedigree as a student of Kant at the University of Königsberg in the early 1760s and his acquaintance with Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert during his visit to Paris in ...

Article

David Rodgers

English writer, connoisseur and collector (see fig.). He was the son of a clergyman from a wealthy dynasty of iron-masters. His father died in 1764, and shortly afterwards he inherited a considerable estate from his uncle, which ensured his financial independence. He was a sickly child and was educated at home, becoming well versed in Classical history, Latin and Greek. In ...

Article

Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

French painter. A pupil of Jean-François Durand (1731–after 1778) in Nancy and later of the miniature painter J.-B. Augustin in Paris (c. 1785–6), he began his career as a porcelain and miniature painter. In the latter capacity he exhibited in the Salon between ...

Article

Martin Postle

English landowner and writer. He was one of the leading promoters of the Picturesque, a quasi-aesthetic theory concerning the codification of types of landscape; this enjoyed a brief popularity in England at the end of the 18th century. In 1794 Price published An Essay on the Picturesque...

Article

German landscape designer and writer. He came from a Silesian noble family and carried the personal title of prince (Ger. Fürst). In 1822 he was compensated for loss of rights when his lands were transferred to Prussia. After receiving a Pietist education, studying law at Leipzig and taking part in the Wars of Liberation, he devoted himself to the estate at Muskau (on what is now the German–Polish border), which he had inherited in ...

Article

Jörg Traeger

German painter, draughtsman and theorist. He stands alongside Caspar David Friedrich as a leading figure in German Romantic painting even though his early death restricted his oeuvre to relatively few stages of development. The enduring prominence of philosophical and theoretical concerns suggests that further work would have contributed to the history of ideas as well as to that of art. Runge’s greatest influence was on later, largely ...

Article

Robert E. McVaugh

German writer. He was trained in law but devoted most of his time to music, poetry and the visual arts. In these pursuits he received guidance and support from Karl Philipp Moritz, Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1752–1814), Erduin Julius Koch (1764–1834) and, above all, ...