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Richard John

French draughtsman, designer and writer. He began his career as tutor to children of nobility, among them those of the Duc de Luynes at the château of Dampierre, where in 1754 he redesigned the park in the English manner. During the Seven Years’ War he worked as a topographical artist for ...

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French landscape designer and writer. He inherited a considerable fortune, which allowed him to develop his interests as a seigneur-philosophe. In 1754 he joined the army and, following the cessation of the Seven Years War in 1763, entered military service at Lunéville under the exiled King of Poland, Stanislav I Leszczyński. Between ...

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James Yorke

English partnership of cabinetmakers formed in 1758 by William Ince (b ?London, c. 1738; d London, 6 Jan 1804) and John Mayhew (b 1736; d London, May 1811). Ince was apprenticed to John West (fl 1743–58) of Covent Garden, London, from ...

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Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

German architect, teacher, theorist and landscape designer. He was first taught mathematics and the rudiments of architecture by his uncle, Christian Friedrich Krubsacius (d 1746), a lieutenant-colonel in the engineers’ corps. He received further training from Zacharias Longuelune and Jean de Bodt. In ...

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Roger White

English architect and writer. The son of a gardener, he first tried his hand as a landscape gardener in Twickenham and published several books that reveal his practical knowledge of the subject, notably New Principles of Gardening (1728) and Pomona (1729). He deplored the rigid formality of continental horticulture and followed Stephen Switzer in advocating the introduction of the serpentine line into layout and planting. By ...

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Michael Symes

. English clergyman, writer and garden designer. Educated at St John’s College, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1754 and was a royal chaplain from 1757 to 1772. His friends and acquaintances included such literary and artistic figures as the poet Thomas Gray, Horace Walpole (later 4th Earl of Orford), William Gilpin, the garden designer ‘Capability’ Brown and the painters Paul Sandby and Joshua Reynolds, the last of whom provided material for his ‘Anecdotes’ (posthumously published in W. Cotton’s anthology in ...

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Michael Symes

English writer and garden designer. The leading poet of his generation, he won fame in part for his successful translations into English of Homer’s The Iliad (1715–20) and The Odyssey (1725–6), and for his own satiric verses, a number of which were directed against the courts of George I and George II and the Whig government and supporters of Robert Walpole, Prime Minister (...

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German landscape designer and writer. He came from a Silesian noble family and carried the personal title of prince (Ger. Fürst). In 1822 he was compensated for loss of rights when his lands were transferred to Prussia. After receiving a Pietist education, studying law at Leipzig and taking part in the Wars of Liberation, he devoted himself to the estate at Muskau (on what is now the German–Polish border), which he had inherited in ...

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Kedrun Laurie

English landscape designer and writer.

The eldest son of a tax collector, he attended Norwich Grammar School, concluding his schooling with three years in the Netherlands. He was then apprenticed to a Norwich textile merchant and, after his marriage to Mary Clarke in 1773, was established in business by his father. In ...

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English lawyer, collector and writer. The son of William Roscoe, a market gardener, he rejected school at an early age and thus received no formal education. As a young man, however, he read a great deal and was soon articled as an attorney’s clerk in Liverpool. He studied Latin on his own, reading the literature of ancient Rome, and also mastered French and Italian. In ...