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Gordon Campbell

Norwegian goldsmith, active in Russia. His best-known work is a gold chalice of 1791 (Washington, DC, Hillwood Mus.), which was part of a liturgical set commissioned by Catherine the Great and presented by her to the Aleksandr Nevsky Monastery in St Petersburg on 29 August 1791...

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Gordon Campbell

Scottish ironworks established in 1759 near Falkirk; by 1800 it was the largest smelting works in Europe, with 1000 employees. Its revolutionary iron-smelting techniques enabled the company to mass-produce fire-grates and stoves; its designers included Robert Adam, who designed a number of elegant fire surrounds, stoves and grates. In the late 18th century the company made some items of cast-iron furniture; it later supplied architectural ironwork for the Edinburgh New Town. James Watt (...

Article

Stephen T. Clarke, Harley Preston and Lin Barton

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between ...

Article

Richard Riddell

English firm of goldsmiths and Jewellers. The firm was founded by George Wickes c. 1730 and taken over by Parker & Wakelin after his retirement in 1760. Robert Garrard (i) (1758–1818), who was not a working silversmith but had been made a freeman of the Grocers’ Company of London in ...

Article

Georg Germann, Melissa Ragain and Pippa Shirley

Term applied to a style of architecture and the decorative arts inspired by the Gothic architecture of medieval Europe. It has been particularly widely applied to churches but has also been used to describe castellated mansions, collegiate buildings, and houses. The Gothic Revival has also been described by many scholars as a movement, rather than style, for in the mid-19th century it was associated with and propagated by religious and political faith. From a hesitant start in the mid-18th century in England and Scotland, in the 19th century it became one of the principal styles of building throughout the world and continued in some huge projects until well into the 20th century (e.g. ...

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Harley Preston and Lin Barton

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Article

English city and centre of metalwork production. From the 12th century blacksmiths, arrowsmiths and cutlers were active in the locality of Sheffield. Although there are references from the Middle Ages to the manufacture of knives, the cutlery trade did not become significant until the 16th century, when the harnessing of water power and the use of local sources of raw materials helped to establish Sheffield as a leading centre of production. The Earls of Shrewsbury kept firm control over the cutlery trades that operated under the jurisdiction of the manorial court. Most businesses were family enterprises, and apprentices were at times recruited from the minor landed gentry, clergy and yeomen. The numerous processes involved in the manufacture of cutlery and the increasing range of edge-tool wares in the 16th and 17th centuries led to the growth of a network of self-employed ‘little mesters’, specializing in one area of production. Changes in the regulation of the trade were made in ...

Article

Susse  

Linda Whiteley

French family of bronze-founders, bronze-casters, dealers, publishers, paper merchants and artists’ suppliers. Jean Susse (1726–1809) was a cabinetmaker in Paris. His two sons Nicolas Susse and Michel-Victor Susse (b Paris, 1782; d Paris, 1853) went into partnership in 1806, opening a shop for fine writing-paper in the Passage des Panoramas, Paris. By ...