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He was a leading artist of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s (see African American art, §I, 2). He studied at the University of Nebraska and then in Paris with Charles Despiau and Othon Friesz (1925–31). Douglas was the earliest ...

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Revised and updated by Margaret Barlow

African American sculptor. Her long career anticipated and included the period of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and early 1930s (see African American art, §I, 2). Born Meta Vaux Warrick, she studied at the Pennsylvania Museum and School for Industrial Art, Philadelphia, from ...

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Theresa Leininger-Miller

Resurgence in black culture, also called the New Negro Movement, which took place in the 1920s and early 1930s, primarily in Harlem, a neighborhood of the New York City borough of Manhattan, but also in major cities throughout the USA, such as Chicago, Detroit, St Louis, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Boston, Atlanta, and Washington, DC, as well as in the Caribbean and in Paris. Better known as a literary movement because of the publication of twenty-six novels, ten volumes of poetry, five Broadway plays and countless essays and short stories, the Harlem Renaissance (a term that historian John Hope Franklin coined in ...

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Gordon Campbell

American furniture-maker. His workshop in Newark (New Jersey) was active from 1836 to 1890. He specialized in furniture in the Renaissance Revival style (e.g. armchairs, 1868–70; New York, Met. and Brooklyn Mus.).

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Richard Wollheim

American art historian and psychoanalyst of Austrian birth. He was a student of Julius von Schlosser at the University of Vienna and joined the staff of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, as a curator of sculpture and applied arts. He became a leading authority on late medieval and Renaissance goldsmith work and engraved gems, and produced ...

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Laurence B. Kanter and Patrick Le Chanu

American family of bankers and collectors. Philip Lehman (b New York, 9 Nov 1861; d New York, 21 March 1947) was director of Lehman Brothers, an investment banking firm, and initially began collecting early Italian Renaissance paintings. His purchases were particularly extensive between ...

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Edith W. Kirsch

American art historian. He was educated at the universities of Princeton (BA) and New York (MA, PhD), lecturing at the latter from 1931 to 1933. He subsequently became Lecturer and finally Professor of Fine Arts and Archaeology at Columbia University (1934–53); Professor as well as Curator of Paintings at the Fogg Museum, Harvard University (...

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Michael Podro and Margaret Barlow

German art historian, active in the USA. He wrote primarily on late medieval and Renaissance art in northern Europe and Italy, mostly, but by no means exclusively, on painting.

Panofsky’s doctoral dissertation (1915) was on the relation of Dürer’s theory of art to that in Renaissance Italy; in ...

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S. J. Vernoit

American psychiatrist and collector. He began to collect art after graduating from medical school and during the 1940s sought medieval and early Renaissance paintings as well as Impressionist and Post-Impressionist works. He also actively supported contemporary American painters. In 1950 he began to collect Asian art. At first interested in Chinese ceramics, he later turned also to Chinese bronzes, jades and sculptures, as well as to Near Eastern and Indian sculptures and paintings. He bequeathed a vast proportion of his Asian collections to the ...

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Jennifer Wingate

American sculptor, active also in France. Scudder developed a lively style influenced by antique and Renaissance statuary as well as by the animated figurative work of Frederick William MacMonnies . The carefree spirit of her sculpture suited the tastes of wealthy Americans who ordered her bronzes for the grounds of their country estates, and her fountains helped garden sculpture achieve a new level of prestige. She had one of the most successful careers of any woman artist of the early 20th century....