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T. I. Zeymal’

Buddhist monastery of the 7th century ad to first half of the 8th, in the valley of the Vakhsh River, 12 km east of Kurgan-Tyube, southern Tajikistan. During this early medieval period it belonged to Vakhsh (U-sha in Chinese sources), one of the 27 domains of Tokharistan. Excavations between ...



W. A. P. Marr

Buddhist monastery in a small valley on the left bank of the River Indus, c. 64 km west of Leh in Ladakh, India. Tradition attributes the monastery’s origin to the Tibetan scholar and temple-builder Rinchen Sangpo (ad 958–1055), the ‘great translator’, and although its buildings mostly date from the 11th century, the site is replete with his memory, from the ancient tree he planted to his portraits and images in the temples. A treasure-house of art, Alchi has been preserved because of its isolation from trade routes and the decline of its community, the monks of the Dromtön sect of the Kadampa order....


Bonnie Abiko

Period in early Japanese history (see Japan, §I, 2). It is variously defined and dated, depending on the criteria under consideration, but conventional dates are from ad 552 (traditionally the year of the introduction of Buddhism into Japan) to 710, when the imperial capital was moved to Nara. In some contexts, for example ceramics or tomb-building, this century and a half is usually considered part of the ...


M. Yaldiz

Site in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, 56 km north-east of Turfan. It is the site of the most outstanding complex of Buddhist cave temples in Khocho and is located in the steep side of an extensive terrace above the Murtuk River. At one time access to the caves was via free-standing timber buildings or terraces constructed in front of them, but by the time the caves were discovered by ...


Chinese, 12th – 13th century, male.

Painter. Figures.

Song dynasty.

Bo Liangyu was a member of the academy of painting during the reign of Emperor Ningzong (1195-1225). He devoted himself to painting Taoist and Buddhist figures.


Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active in the first half of the 14th century, during the Yuan dynasty.


Bo Ziting was a Buddhist painter from Jiading (Jiangsu) who painted rocks and flowers.


Masatomo Kawai

Japanese painter and Zen monk. He was a close disciple of Ikkyū Sōjun, the Zen abbot of Daitokuji in Kyoto. After Ikkyū’s death, Bokusai compiled his master’s biography, and he became first-generation head of Shūon’an in Takigi (Tanabe, Kyoto Prefect.), the mortuary temple Ikkyū built for himself. In ...


Masatomo Kawai

Japanese Zen monk, scholar, calligrapher, poet and painter. He began his training as a monk at Nanzenji in Kyoto, under Shun’oku Myōha, the nephew and disciple of Musō Sōseki, one of the leading Zen prelates of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). His other teachers included the Zen recluse Shakushitsu Genkō and Gidō Shūshin, under whom he studied literature. A trusted adviser of the fourth Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimochi, Gyokuen was appointed to the prestigious abbacies of Kenninji (...


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1877; died 1970.

Painter, calligrapher.

Shunkai Bundo was a monk of the Buddhist Tendai sect and a member of the Japan Art Academy.

New York, 27 April 1994: Universal Brother­hood and International Peace (hanging scroll in a casket of wood, ink on paper...



Ken Brown

Zen monk and ink painter, active in Japan. He may have come to Japan from Korea, where his work is also known: a couple of paintings in the National Museum of Korea in Seoul bear his seal. Moreover, some of his extant landscapes in Japan were done in Korean style. His seal, which appears on only a handful of paintings, is similar to that used by ...