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E. Sapouna-Sakellarakis

Site in northern Crete 15 km south-east of Herakleion. Occupied in Neolithic times, it flourished in the Minoan period (c. 3500/3000–c. 1500 bc). Arthur Evans was the first to excavate in the area after World War I, and work continued from the early 1960s under the direction of ...



Robin Hägg

Site in the north-eastern Peloponnese in southern Greece, on the eastern fringe of the Argive plain 10 km north-north-east of Navplion. To the settlement, which flourished c. 1350–c. 1200 bc, belong a necropolis near the village of Dendra and the acropolis of Midea east-south-east of the village. In Greek legend Midea was the home of Alkmene, the mother of Herakles. The necropolis was excavated by a Swedish expedition in the 1920s and 1930s, and in ...


O. T. P. K. Dickinson

Site south-west of Thebes, in central Greece, where Hetty Goldman’s major excavation campaign (1924–7) revealed a long and informative prehistoric sequence, running from the later Neolithic period through almost the entire Bronze Age. Indications of later occupation are present but sparse. Early Helladic (...



G. Dimitrokallis and N. Moutsopoulos

Site of ancient Geronthrai in Laconia, Greece, 40 km south-east of Sparta and occupied by a large modern village. The ancient acropolis is surrounded by Cyclopean walls of the Mycenaean period (c. 1300 bc), well-preserved to the north and east. The medieval castle of Geraki, which was built by ...



Site in the east Kopais in central Greece north-north-west of Thebes. A low flat-topped rock near the converging point of the Late Bronze Age drainage dikes, it was first settled in Neolithic times. It was occupied again c. 1300 bc after the construction of the dikes and fortified with a 5.5 m thick serrate Cyclopean wall. This was pierced by four gates (west, north, south-east and south), flanked by thickenings of the wall that project at the South Gate to form bastions. Guardrooms were built inside the gates. Within the enceinte there is a central enclosure, bisected by an east–west cross-wall. The north part contains an L-shaped double residential building consisting of two identical wings divided into apartments connected by corridors and having megaron-like units at both ends. The building had monolithic thresholds and low stone walls with a mud-brick superstructure, covered—as were the floors—with plain or painted lime plaster. Roofs were sloped, covered with terracotta tiles. Similar in construction but simpler (fewer plaster floors, no monolithic thresholds) are two duplicate building complexes along the east and west sides of the south enclosure, both ...



Antonino Di Vita and Dimitris Tsougarakis

Site of a city on the northern edge of the Mesara Plain in southern Crete, c. 6 km north-east of Moíres, which flourished c. 700 bcad 670. The westernmost of the hills enclosing it to the north served as its acropolis, where, following Neolithic occupation, there was a Bronze Age settlement after the ...



Gerald Cadogan

Site in eastern Crete, near the northern end of the Ierapetra Isthmus. Set on a low spur overlooking the Bay of Mirabello, it was occupied from Early Minoan (em) ii till Late Minoan (lm) i (c. 2900/2600–c....



Susan Langdon

Site in Thessaly on the north-eastern coast of Greece. Iolkos is located on a mound within the boundaries of modern Volos near Mt Pelion on the Gulf of Volos. Systematic excavations carried out in 1921–2 by A. Arvanitopoulos and in 1956–61 by D. Theochares revealed intriguing archaeological correspondence for Iolkos’ legendary fame as the point of departure for the voyage of the Argonauts. The site comprises an artificial mound evincing continuous occupation from Early Helladic (...


S. L. Petrakis

Site in Triphylia, south-western Greece, which flourished in Late Helladic (lh) i and ii (c. 1600–c. 1390 bc). Excavated by Wilhelm Dörpfeld in 1906, it is chiefly significant for the discovery there of pottery, and ornaments made from exotic materials, related to Minoan works of the same period. These objects are now in the ...



R. A. Tomlinson

Site of ancient Greek city in Aitolia on the northern side of the Corinthian Gulf, situated on two hills overlooking the plain of the River Euenos. It flourished from the Late Bronze Age until 30 bc, when its inhabitants were transferred to Nikopolis. It featured in Greek mythology as the home of Oineus and his sons Tydeus and Meleager and as the location of the Kalydonian boar-hunt, while the more northerly of its two hills was a Mycenaean acropolis and bears traces of possible Late Bronze Age fortifications. The area has also produced Late Bronze Age pottery, and Dark Age (...