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Australian architect of English birth. He was probably no more than a master-builder’s assistant by 1785 when he was sentenced to transportation. In January 1788 he arrived with the first fleet in the new colony of New South Wales at Port Jackson, Sydney, and as an experienced brickmaker he was immediately put in charge of the brickworks at ...

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Christine Clark

English painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in Australia. In London he exhibited six portraits at the Royal Academy (1817–23) and three genre paintings at the British Institution and engraved two colour plates for George Morland, before moving to Hobart, Tasmania, in 1832. At the Hobart Mechanics’ Institute in ...

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Patrick Conner

English painter, active also in Australia. He was employed first as a schoolteacher at Appleby (Cumbria) and after 1794 as a drawing-master at Lichfield (Staffs), from where he sent drawings to London each year; on his occasional visits to the capital he received lessons from ...

Article

Nadia Tscherny

English painter. He first attended classes at William Shipley’s Academy in the Strand, London, and from 1758 to 1765 was apprenticed to Richard Wilson (about whom he published a short biographical essay in 1790). Hodges followed Wilson’s classical landscape style periodically throughout his career, but, particularly during his travels, he also occasionally abandoned it in favour of freer handling, bolder juxtapositions of colour and a more empirical response to the natural world....

Article

George Tibbits

Australian architect of English birth. His early experience was in London as a military surveyor and draughtsman in government service and then in private practice. He arrived in Sydney in March 1840 as an assistant surveyor in the office of the Surveyor-General of New South Wales, ...

Article

The Stone Age in New Zealand ended abruptly in 1769, when Captain James Cook’s Endeavour introduced iron artefacts to the culture of the indigenous Maori. Lucky individuals traded for tomahawks and nails; others less fortunate experienced being shot by devices that totally transcended the familiar wooden and stone weapons. These latter artefacts in turn proved desirable ‘curiosities’ for the European visitors, so that Cook-provenanced artefacts came to represent an ethnographic line drawn between an idealized ‘before’ and ‘after’ European contact—despite such ‘contact’ spanning decades, if not an entire century. Several preserved human heads were obtained on the voyages, inaugurating a macabre collecting craze for tattooed heads that reached its height in the 1820s before being outlawed in ...

Article

Valerie A. Clack

Australian architect of English birth. He came from a family whose members had worked in the building trade for generations. His father, Nicholas Verge, was a bricklayer, and Verge entered the family trade. About 1804 he went to London and worked there as a tradesman and builder, probably also acquiring experience of architecture. By ...

Article

Robert Smith

Australian painter and draughtsman of Scottish birth. He was a coach painter in Glasgow in 1788, and a trade card designed by him announcing drawing lessons at ‘Watling’s Academy’ was brought forward as evidence of his artistic abilities at his trial for forgery in Dumfries in ...

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Shearer West

English family of painters and illustrators . Richard Westall (b Hertford, 1765; d London, 4 Dec 1836) was apprenticed in 1799 to John Thompson, a heraldic engraver in London. The miniaturist John Alefounder (d 1795) advised Westall to take up painting, and in ...