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Ramón Vargas

Mexican architect, theorist and writer, of Japanese descent. The son of a Japanese ambassador in Mexico, he studied philosophy, espousing neo-Kantianism and becoming politically a socialist. He became a supporter of Functionalism, with its emphasis on the social applications of architecture, and was a founder, with ...

Article

Christophe Spaenjers

Set of financial methods, instruments, and business models that are used in the Art market. Important developments since the 1960s include the spreading availability and use of art price information and price indexes (see Art index), the emergence of loans collateralized by artworks, repeated efforts to create art investment structures, and a strong growth in art market advisory services provided by wealth managers and new entrepreneurs (...

Article

Mayching Kao

Chinese painter and art critic. Chan moved with his family to Hong Kong in 1910, becoming an active member of the Hong Kong arts scene in the 1920s. A self-taught artist of Western-style painting, Chan painted realistic watercolours of the local scenery. From the early 1960s he experimented with a variety of styles and techniques inspired by international avant-garde movements, ranging from geometric abstractions painted with a spray gun to configurations achieved by splashing and dribbling paint on canvas. In the 1970s Chan won critical acclaim for his dreamlike fantasy paintings populated with colourful creatures, both real and imaginary, and inspired by the hustle and bustle of Hong Kong life. Chan has been called the myth-maker of Hong Kong, and his complex iconography as well as his heterogeneous artistic origins are significant for the light they shed on the cultural history of Hong Kong....

Article

Gensler  

Sara Stevens

American architectural firm started by Arthur Gensler Drue Gensler, and Jim Follett in 1965 in San Francisco, CA. M. Arthur Gensler jr (b Brooklyn, New York, 1935) attended Cornell University to study architecture (BArch, 1957). The firm began doing build-outs for retail stores and corporate offices, and initially established itself in the unglamorous area of interior architecture. Thirty years later and without mergers or acquisitions, it had grown to become one of the largest architecture firms in the world, having pioneered the global consultancy firm specializing in coordinated rollouts of multi-site building programmes. By ...

Article

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew ...

Article

Lelia Delgado

Venezuelan painter of Chinese birth. In 1956 he entered the Escuela de Artes Plásticas ‘Julio Arraga’ in Maracaibo, and in 1958 he travelled to Paris to study at the Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts. He returned to Venezuela in 1962 and held his first one-man show in ...

Article

Alberto González Pozo

Mexican architect, teacher and writer, of Russian descent. In 1926 he settled in Paris, where between 1929 and 1935 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Georges Gromort. He moved to Mexico in 1942, where he combined editorial work on the periodical Arquitectura México...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

Peruvian painter. He was born to a Japanese father and a Peruvian mother, and the influence of the former came to have some bearing on his art. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima until 1960, and from 1962 to 1964...

Article

Roberto Pontual

Brazilian painter of Japanese birth. At the age of ten he was taken by his family to Brazil, where he first worked in the coffee plantations in the interior of São Paulo State. After moving to the state capital he painted his first pictures c....

Article

Joan Kee

Taiwanese conceptual artist, active also in the USA. Lee spent his childhood in Taichung, where he studied Chan Buddhism from the age of eight. At 12, Lee spent time among Taiwanese expatriates in the Dominican Republic, and two years later moved to the USA, where he later studied biology at the University of Washington, Seattle. He transferred, however, to the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland, CA, where he focused on architecture and textiles (...