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Article

Linda Mowat

Artefacts of more or less rigid construction produced by the interlacing of linear materials. Basketwork is of considerable antiquity (dating from at least 8000 bc in Egypt and Peru) and in one form or other has been practised almost everywhere in the world.

Basketry materials vary according to the environment of the basketmaker: the wood, bark, roots, shoots, stems, leaves and fibre of hundreds of trees and plants can be used. With few exceptions, these materials take time to find, select, gather and prepare. Many require pounding, stripping, splitting, gauging, drying, dyeing, bleaching or soaking before they can be used. The acquisition and preparation of materials often takes longer than the actual making of the basket....

Article

Emerald  

Gordon Campbell

Green variety of Beryl, mined in Upper Egypt and India from antiquity and in Colombia both before and after the Spanish Conquest. Nero is said to have watched gladiatorial contests through an emerald. The two best-known emeralds are the Devonshire Emerald (London, Nat. Hist. Mus.) and the Patricia Emerald (New York, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.). The most famous historical emeralds are the 453 emeralds (totalling ...

Article

Sarah Urist Green

Chilean architect, public interventionist, installation artist, photographer and filmmaker, active in the USA since 1982. He first studied architecture at the Universidad de Chile in Santiago, then filmmaking at the Instituto Chileno-Norteamericano de Cultura, Santiago, concluding in 1981. Throughout his career, Jaar has consistently endeavored to highlight and give visual form to complex ideas and incomprehensible tragedies. In over fifty projects he termed ‘public interventions’, Jaar conducted extensive research around the world to create site-specific works that reflect political and social realities near and far from his sites of exhibition. He created works—in gallery spaces and in public, often engaging spectator involvement—that harness and reappropriate the power of images through various and calculated strategies of representation....

Article

Veerle Poupeye

Jamaican painter and teacher. He studied at the Jamaica School of Art, Kingston, and the Royal College of Art, London, and started exhibiting in the 1960s. In the early 1970s he lectured at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. He headed the painting department at the Jamaica School of Art from ...

Article

Richard F. Townsend

Site of a 16th-century rock-cut Aztec temple, c. 60 km south-east of Mexico City. The temple at Malinalco is an example of a widespread type of ritual building described in 16th-century ethno-historical texts and associated with the cult of the earth. Its monolithic inner chamber is the only excavated example to have survived intact. The temple forms part of a ritual and administrative centre built at the hilltop Matlazinca town of Malinalco after it had been incorporated into the Aztec empire. The buildings were begun in ...

Article

Christine Robinson

British photographer of Ghanaian and Dominican descent. Perrier’s work primarily explores portraiture and its historical traditions in Africa. Her photographic projects address her own multicultural identity by questioning themes of diversity, cultural belonging, and identity.

Perrier graduated with a BA from the Surrey Institute of Art and Design in Farnham in ...

Article

Puebla  

S. Leticia Talavera and P. Mariano Monterrosa

Mexican city in the state and valley of the same name. It is situated on the south-western slope of La Malinche volcano, 2162 m above sea-level, and it lies at the foot of the Loreto and Guadalupe hills by the River Atoyac. It has a population of ...

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages....

Article

Nelly Perazzo

Argentine sculptor. She studied painting under Horacio Butler and sculpture under the Argentine sculptor Leo Vinci. She travelled to Africa, where she became closely involved with sculpture workshops in Zimbabwe, Tanzania and among the Dogon people in Mali, and to India, where she visited the workshop at Mahabalipuram. Using thin metal wires to define form and creating an animated dialogue from the contrast between positive and negative spaces, she created sculptures suspended in the air, fixed to a wall or placed upright without base, in each case combining a directness of method with conceptual complexity. In spite of the severe limitations of her chosen material, which enabled her to create apparently weightless sculptures with subtle outlines, the very rigour imposed by the wire allowed her to give free rein to fantasy and gracefulness without falling into mere decorativeness....

Article

José Pedro Barrán, Renzo Pi Hugarte, Angel Kalenberg, Christopher Hartop and Alicia Haber

South American country. It is on the east coast of the continent, bounded to the south and east by the estuary of the River Plate and the south Atlantic, to the west by the River Uruguay and Argentina and to the north by Brazil. With an area of ...