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Sandra Sider

Folk art, or vernacular art (specific to a group or place), developed in Colonial America out of necessity when individual households produced most of the utilitarian objects required for daily life. Using traditional tools and techniques, many of these makers created pieces in which aesthetics came to play a substantial role, through form, ornamentation, or both. In some groups, notably the ...


Ethan Robey

Form of painted spectacle popular in the 19th century. Panoramas and the panoramic mode of representation pervaded the visual culture of 19th-century America. Invented by the Irish artist Robert Barker (1739–1806) in the 1790s, circular panoramas, 360 painted views, were typically displayed in purpose-built rotundas. Fee-paying visitors ascended to the main room where the painting, illuminated by skylights, lined the walls. The top and bottom edges of the painted canvas were often obscured to afford visitors as few visual cues as possible to its artificiality....



James Cordova and Claire Farago

Term that refers to handmade paintings and sculptures of Christian holy figures, crafted by artists from the Hispanic and Lusophone Americas. The term first came into widespread use in early 20th-century New Mexico among English-speaking art collectors to convey a sense of cultural authenticity. Throughout the Americas, the term ...