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Awatovi  

E. Charles Adams

Site in North America, in north-eastern Arizona. A Hopi village was established there by c. ad 1250 and destroyed in 1700. During excavations (1935–9) by the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, almost 150 wall paintings were discovered in 11 kivas (subterranean ceremonial structures; ...

Article

Cahokia  

David M. Jones

Site in the USA in East St Louis, IL, of a huge Pre-Columbian city. Founded c. ad 700, it was the largest prehistoric city ever built north of Mexico and was probably influenced by political and civic ideas from Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian. At its height, between ...

Article

Etowah  

David S. Brose

Site in north-west Georgia, USA, where a densely occupied, haphazardly planned agricultural village flourished in the Mississippian period (c. ad 1000–c. 1600). It covers 21 ha at the junction of the southern Appalachian Mountains and the piedmont, at the major fork of the Coosa River. The site was surrounded by palisades with outworks. Within the village area were three large ...

Article

David S. Brose

Site of a prehistoric village with complex earthworks, which flourished on the banks of Caloosahatchee River near Lake Okeechobee in south Florida, USA. By c. 450 bc the hunter–gatherer occupants had created a 9 m-wide, 350 m-diameter circular ditch to drain a vast garden plot. By ...

Article

Craig D. Bates

Site in North America of the most elaborate known Chumash rock art, near the Emigdiano village site of Tashlipunau in the extreme south-west corner of Kern County, CA. The area is north of Mt Pinos, one of the mountain peaks most sacred to the Chumash, near the centre of their universe. The area was probably recognized as a place of supernatural power and may have been a ritual centre. Spread through four cave shelters are neatly and carefully executed paintings, comprising large circular motifs with concentric rings, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figures, dots, bifurcated and zigzag forms painted in black, white, yellow, cream, shades of red, orange, green and blue-green. While much of the patterning and colours are like those found in other Chumash rock art sites, the ...

Article

Susan Langdon

Site of an Early and Late Bronze Age town in the Corinthia of southern Greece, midway between Argos and Corinth. Excavations at the Zygouries Hill in the Kleonai Valley were conducted by Carl Blegen in 1921–2 for the American School of Classical Studies, revealing an important sequence of Bronze Age settlements. The Early Helladic (...