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Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

Article

Jaynie Anderson

English archaeologist, politician, diplomat, collector and writer. From his boyhood in Florence, where he grew up in the Palazzo Rucellai and knew Seymour Kirkup (1788–1880) and Walter Savage Landor (1775–1864), he was inspired by a love of Italian art and culture. He returned to England at the age of 12 and, unable to go to university, was apprenticed as a solicitor from ...

Article

Hélène Bocard

French photographer, archaeologist and painter. A painter of landscapes and religious scenes and a keen archaeologist, he was fascinated by the Middle East from an early age. He visited Italy and Algeria with his friend Eugène Fromentin, and he was in Egypt at the time of the excavations of Auguste Mariette (...

Article

Lawrence E. Butler

French archaeologist. A student of mathematics, chemistry and Greek, he finished his education at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He became Inspector of Public Works in Paris in 1827 and spent much of his life surveying the antiquities of France and of other Mediterranean countries. His greatest achievement was a series of journeys underwritten by the Ministry of Public Instruction to explore Asia Minor, Armenia, Mesopotamia and Iran. His first campaign (...

Article

Pascale Linant de Bellefonds

French archaeologist and diplomat. He initially worked as a diplomat in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) in 1850, but he soon resigned and from 1853 to 1854 travelled around Greece, Turkey, Syria and Palestine, where he collected material for his work on Christian buildings. In 1861...