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Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 2 February 1914, in Washington (North Carolina), 1919, according to some sources; died 1977.

Sculptor, print artist, ceramicist, illustrator.

William E. Artis studied at the University of Syracuse, New York, New York State University and the Art Students League, New York. He was also a student of Augusta Savage at the Harlem Community Art Center, New York. Artis expressed his humanist ideals by depicting impassive faces in a purified style, combining African and classical sculpture....

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 April 1889, in Neosho (Missouri); died 1975, in Kansas City (Missouri).

Painter, lithographer, illustrator, ceramicist. Scenes with figures, genre scenes, local scenes. Murals.

American Regionalism.

Thomas Hart Benton gave up his job as a newspaper cartoonist in order to enroll in the Art Institute of Chicago, before pursuing his studies in Paris at the Académie Julian from 1908 to 1911. He was then in contact with some of the early 20th-century artists seeking radical renewal, in particular Stanton MacDonald-Wright, one of the active members of the Synchromism movement, which used the circle as the element capable of enlivening an abstract composition through the effects of colour dynamism. Benton himself said that it took him 10 years to break away from this abstract art, which later, after World War I, he openly opposed. But on his return to the USA in 1912, he was still in touch with Alfred Stieglitz, who was showing work by abstract artists and in 1916 was still showing Benton’s synchromist abstract paintings. Back in New York in 1913, he produced pottery, designed sets for Fox Studios, illustrated books and taught an evening class. He also taught at the New School for Social Research in Manhattan, where his personal choices had a significant influence on a great many young artists. Then, from 1926, he taught at the Art Students League, New York, where in 1929 one of his students was Jackson Pollock, who for a time painted Realist pictures, but quickly reacted against this genre, all the more vigorously for having to oppose Benton’s strong personality....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 23 June 1822, in Philadelphia; died 27 March 1888, in Claymore.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator. History painting, portraits, genre scenes.

Felix Octavius Carr Darley was a member of the American Art Union from 1850 and of the American Society of Painters in Watercolor ...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 1840; died 1894.

Draughtsman, engraver (wood), illustrator. Military subjects, local scenes, landscapes. Designs for ceramics.

Theo Davis won recognition for his illustrations depicting scenes of the American Civil War, which he witnessed in the field for Harper's magazine. He was apparently wounded on two occasions. After the war he travelled several times into the American West and thus became one of the first artists to bring back drawings of members of the Sioux nation. He accompanied General Custer's expedition in ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 6 April 1857, in Ipswich (Massachusetts); died 13 December 1922, in New York.

Painter, engraver (wood), draughtsman, designer, illustrator, potter, photographer. Landscapes.

Arthur Wesley Dow studied in Worcester with the painter Anna K. Freeland, then in Boston in the studio of the painter James M. Stone. In 1884 he travelled to Paris, where he was a pupil of Boulanger and of Lefebvre at the Académie Julian. On returning to Boston in 1889, he studied Aztec, Oceanian, African, Egyptian and, above all, Japanese art. In 1893 he became assistant curator of Japanese art at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. In the 1890s Dow became an avid photographer and made photographs as studies and as works of art. The majority of his photographs are of the landscape around Ipswich and botanical subjects. He printed most often in cyanotype, which renders the image in bright shades of blue and reveals Dow’s interest in tonality. For example, Dory (1904) explores the transitions between low-lying marsh grass and still water in an arrangement inspired by the Japanese woodblock prints he admired....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1909, in Baltimore; died 1993.

Painter, draughtsman, print artist, illustrator, art historian, writer. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, scenes with figures, landscapes. Comic strips.

Elton Clay Fax studied at Clafin University, Orangeburg, South Carolina, and Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. He was taught by Augusta Savage....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1891, in St Louis (Missouri); died 1943.

Painter, illustrator. Figures, scenes with figures, local scenes.

McClelland Barclay was a student of H.C. Ives in St Louis, and then of George Bridgman and Thomas Fogarty at the Art Students League in New York. He also studied at the Corcoran School of Art and the Art Institute of Chicago, and became a member of the Artists Guild, the Art Students League of New York and the Society of Illustrators. He contributed cover illustrations to a number of publications including ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1874, in Bedford (Iowa); died 1950, in Portland (Oregon).

Painter, illustrator.

After spending his first 21 years on a farm, Clayton Sumner Price had his first lessons in drawing at the St Louis School of Fine Arts in 1905 and ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 3 March 1893, in San Francisco; died 12 March 1998, in Ojai (California).

Draughtswoman, watercolourist, illustrator, ceramicist, sculptor, writer. Figures, nudes.

Dadaism.

Beatrice Wood studied in Paris before the World War I, at the Académie Julian and the Comédie Française. She moved to Italy with Gordon Craig before returning to New York in ...