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Article

Christophe Spaenjers

Set of financial methods, instruments, and business models that are used in the Art market. Important developments since the 1960s include the spreading availability and use of art price information and price indexes (see Art index), the emergence of loans collateralized by artworks, repeated efforts to create art investment structures, and a strong growth in art market advisory services provided by wealth managers and new entrepreneurs (...

Article

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew ...

Article

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Activec.1780.

Born in Osaka; died c. 1802.

Illustrator.

Nichosai was a businessman and antique dealer. He was also an author and illustrator and is known for a collection of theatrical caricatures he published in 1780.

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages....

Article

Japanese, 19th century, male.

Active in Edo, now Tokyo.

Born 1777; died 1835.

Illustrator, print artist.

Toyokuni II (Kosotei) was the adopted son and diciple of Toyokuni. He worked in Edo as a ceramic dealer and executed female figures and book illustrations.

New York, 21 March 1989...