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Article

Margaret Medley

English diplomat, collector and art historian. In 1947, as a member of the British Diplomatic Service, he was posted to Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, then the capital of the Nationalist Chinese government. He became interested in Chinese art and history and began a collection of porcelain, furniture and textiles at a time of political and economic uncertainty, when Chinese collectors were forced to sell. When he moved to the British embassy in Beijing in ...

Article

Gabriel P. Weisberg

French art dealer, critic and patron, of German birth. Often misnamed Samuel, he was a major promoter of Japanese art and Art Nouveau. From a wealthy, entrepreneurial Hamburg family, he trained as an industrial decorator for ceramics under the guidance of his father and independently in Paris during the Second Empire (...

Article

Nancy E. Green

American curator, scholar, collector, and educator. Fenollosa played a unique role in enhancing the appreciation of Japanese art in both its native country and within the USA. Educated at Harvard, after graduation he studied philosophy and divinity at Cambridge University, followed by a year at the newly founded art school at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. He also formed important friendships with the collectors ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

Swedish collector and art historian. After graduating as a civil engineer in 1904 from the Royal College of Engineering in Stockholm, he travelled to China in 1906, where he worked first as a superintendent of reinforced concrete construction and then, from 1908, as a section engineer for the Tientsin–Pukow (Tianjin–Pukou) Railway Company. As objects of art were frequently discovered during the construction of railways, Karlbeck soon became interested in Chinese archaeology and art and formed an important collection of early Chinese bronzes. When the Swedish Crown Prince, later King ...

Article

Caroline Gyss-Vermande

French scholar and explorer. Pelliot began his career in East Asian studies in 1899 at what was to become the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO), established in Saigon in 1901, and then transferred to Hanoi in 1902. He was sent to Beijing with a commission to acquire books, manuscripts and works of art with which to establish the Chinese holding of the new school’s library and museum. He arrived during the Boxer Rebellion (...

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

Chinese painter, calligrapher, connoisseur, theoretician, collector and high official.

At the age of 12 Dong Qichang, the son of a local school-teacher, passed the prefectural civil-service examination to qualify as a Government Student (shengyuan) and was awarded a coveted place in the prefectural school. Mortified, however, at being ranked below his younger kinsman Dong Chuanxu because of his clumsy calligraphy, from ...

Article

Robert E. Harrist jr

(b ad 600; reg 626–49; d 649). Chinese emperor, patron and art collector. He was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty (ad 618–907), not to be confused with Emperor Taizong (reg 976–97) of the Song period (960–1279). He staged a coup d’état to gain power, assassinating his elder brother, the rightful heir, and forcing his father, Emperor Gaozu (...

Article

Chinese, 9th century, male.

Born c. 810; died c. 880.

Art critic, art historian, collector.

The scion of an illustrious line of officials, Zhang Yanyuan probably took his first steps as an art historian in his family’s own rich collections. He wrote a monumental work of art history, the ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (i), (a)...

Article

Kim Hongnam

(b Nanjing, 1612; d 1672). Chinese patron, collector and writer. Zhou’s devotion to the art of his own time rather than to that of the past was unique in traditional China. His huge collection of contemporary paintings was unrivalled in his day, and his extensive influence within the art world led artists to seek his endorsement. His book ...