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Kōzō Sasaki

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (...


Karen M. Gerhart

Japanese painter, art critic and theorist. His family was descended from a tea master and samurai vassal of warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but by the time of Gyokushū’s birth the Kuwayama had given up Samurai status and become well-to-do shipping merchants. His highly influential essay on ...


Pyŏn Yŏng-Sŏp

Korean painter, calligrapher and critic. He was born into a prominent literati family in Seoul and became the most influential connoisseur and critic of his time. At the age of 31 he moved to Ahnsan, near Seoul, where he lived for about 30 years. During this time he developed and completed his artistic identity, concentrating on producing various works of art–poetry, calligraphy and paintings. At the age of 61 he took up a civil service post for the first time. This presumably caused him to move back to Seoul, where he lived until his death. While he was in the service he did not lose his enthusiasm for creating art. His late works show a greater refinement and nobleness. In ...


Mark H. Sandler

Japanese painter and daimyo. Lord of the domain of Akita in Dewa Province (now Akita Prefect.), patron and practitioner of Akita ranga (‘Akita Dutch painting’), the school of Western-style painting based in his fief, Shozan advocated empirical study as a means of acquiring practical knowledge. Interested in the study of medicinal plants and in Western technology, he invited the polymath ...