Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....
Greek, 20th century, male.
Born in Athens.
George Demetriades exhibited a Head of Christ at the Salon de la Société Nationale in Paris in 1932.
Greek, 16th–17th century, male.
Active fromc.1576 in Spain.
Born c. 1541, in Heraklion, Crete; died 7 April 1614, in Toledo.
Painter, sculptor, draughtsman. Religious subjects, figures, portraits.
El Greco (‘The Greek’) trained as an icon painter in the Byzantine tradition in his native Crete and spent 10 years in Italy, first in Venice, then Rome. From Italy he went briefly to Madrid, perhaps in search of commissions at the Escorial, and settled in Toledo in the summer of 1577. While there is little documentation of his workshop, his output while in Toledo implies the existence of a large studio, which was taken over after El Greco’s death by his son, Jorge Manuel Theotocopuli. El Greco was well educated and had a scholar’s library; his annotations in his copy of Giorgio Vasari’s ...
Greek, 20th century, male.
Active in France from 1922 and naturalised from 1949.
Born 12 August 1916, in Istanbul, to Greek parents; died 23 October 1985, in Eygalières, France.
Painter (including gouache), draughtsman (including ink/wash), sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, scenes with figures, landscapes, mountainscapes, landscapes with figures, harbour scenes...
In its most general sense, spolia (pl., from Lat. spolium: ‘plunder’) denotes all artifacts re-employed in secondary contexts, from building blocks reused in a wall to pagan gems mounted on a Christian reliquary. It is a matter of debate whether this broad application of the term is justified, or whether it should be restricted to the relatively small subset of reused objects that were taken or ‘stripped’ (like spoils) from their original context, rather than found, purchased, inherited or otherwise acquired by non-violent means. It is likewise debated when the use of spolia should be considered meaningful, if at all. Arnold Esch defined five possible motives for using spolia: convenience, profanation, Christianization, political legitimation and aesthetic attraction. Michael Greenhalgh has argued for reducing the motives to three (at least with regard to marble): pragmatism, aesthetics and ideology; while Finbarr Barry Flood cautioned against reductive interpretations generated by any taxonomy, insisting that reused objects are mutable in meaning and capable of multiple interpretations during their life cycle....