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Ralph Croizier

Chinese painter and art educator . The most acclaimed Western-trained artist in modern China, he influenced the development of 20th-century Chinese painting through his role as art teacher and administrator as well as his painting.

Xu’s father was a village teacher and painter. Forced to support the family after his father’s early death, in ...

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Artists’ club formed in 1926 in San Francisco’s Chinatown. The club was composed of Guangdong immigrants in their late teens and early 20s. Its headquarters, which also served as a studio, teaching center, exhibition space and quite possibly a shared bedroom, was located in an upper room at 150 Wetmore Place, an alley on Chinatown’s western fringe. The exact membership is unknown—probably a dozen members at any given time—and its composition fluctuated greatly during its 15 or so years of existence. Its most famous members were Yun Gee, a co-founder and leader, and Eva Fong Chan (...

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Mayching Kao

Chinese painter and art educator. Huang studied both Chinese and Western painting, but he came to concentrate on Chinese art, studying and copying the works of old masters in public and private collections, including his own. He embarked upon an illustrious teaching career in 1923...

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Hsio-Yen Shih

Chinese art educator and painter. His grandfather was a carver of tombstones, as was his father, who also learnt to paint. He began carving and painting as a child, often copying from the Jiezi yuan huazhuan (‘Mustard-seed Garden painting manual’; 1679 and 1701...

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Mayching Kao

Chinese painter and art educator . Wu trained at the Hangzhou National Academy of Art between 1936 and 1942, studying modern Western painting with Chinese artists returned from France, and Chinese painting with Pan Tianshou , from whom he gained a deep understanding of Chinese aesthetics. From ...

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Hsio-Yen Shih

Chinese art educator and painter. He came from a merchant family that had supported the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64). He began to learn painting at the age of six by studying line drawings in the style of Yun Shouping. At the age of 13 he went to Shanghai, hoping to study Western painting. He did not find any established art school there but discovered the works of Velázquez and Goya, which he copied to learn Western oil and watercolour techniques. In ...

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Mayching Kao

Chinese painter, calligrapher and art educator. Coming from a poor peasant family, Li took up hard labour to earn his way through art school in Beijing. He also studied with Xu Beihong and Qi Baishi; the latter considered Li his best student. Li was active as an art teacher in Beijing from ...

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Aya Louisa McDonald

Japanese painter. He is best known for introducing the plein-air palette of French Impressionism to Japan. He was the most successful and politically influential advocate of Western-style painting (Yōga; see Japan, §VI, 5, (iv)) in Japan at the turn of the century. Born into a wealthy aristocratic family, Kuroda was adopted by his uncle Viscount Kuroda Kiyotsuna (...

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Miwako Tezuka

Japanese-born American painter. Obata is known for his sumi ink paintings, watercolors and woodblock prints depicting California landscapes. After studying Nihonga (Japanese-style painting) at the Japan Fine Arts Academy in Tokyo, he moved to San Francisco in 1903 to pursue career in art, and soon began working as an illustrator for local publications for the Japanese American community. In ...

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Zhong Hong

Chinese painter, calligrapher, art educator and musician. A colourful and influential figure in the history of 20th-century Chinese art, he pioneered the introduction of Western arts, including commercial art, woodcut printmaking, modern drama and music, into China.

Li Shutong became interested in Western art at the Nanyang Public School in Shanghai. In ...