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Saint-Phalle, Niki de pseudonym of Fal de Saint Phalle, Catherine Marie-Agnèsfree

French, 20th century, female.

Born 29 October 1930, in Neuilly-sur-Seine; died 22 May 2002, in San Diego (California).

Sculptor, painter (including gouache), watercolourist, collage artist, engraver, draughtswoman, performance artist. Figures. Stage sets, artists’ books, designs (jewels/objets d’art).

Nouvelle Figuration.

Nouveaux Réalistes group.

SAINT-PHALLE, Niki de: signature or monogram (Copyright www.ArtistsSignatures.com)

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Niki de Saint-Phalle was educated at the Sacred Heart Convent in New York, where she lived from 1933 to 1951. In 1952 she went to live in Paris with her husband, Harry Matthews, and travelled in Europe. She was a self-taught painter who painted her first canvases in 1953 and then turned to sculpture. In 1960 she met Jean Tinguely, whose companion she became. In the same year Pierre Restany founded the Nouveaux Réalistes group, and Niki de Saint-Phalle joined it in 1961.

She began to paint as a therapy after treatment in a psychiatric hospital, and initially she used collage techniques, with simultaneous references to Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism and Art Brut. From 1956 the collage technique led her to include objects and plaster additions in her paintings, which were baroque and fanciful in character. In 1960, using the symbolic and parodic theme of the Martyrdom of St Sebastian, she included cork targets in these assemblages and the viewers were provided with small arrows so they could participate in a work in progress. This led to other gestures aimed at leaving a mark on what she conceived to be an unfinished work. In 1961 she incorporated in her Surprise Paintings ( Tableaux-surprises) containers of paint intended to be burst by the viewers, so that the colours flowed over the surface of the pictures and modified both their appearance and formal structure. She saw the spontaneous, violent and aggressive action as a way of demythologising art. At the same time, it would seem to have been a satirical comment on the excesses of American Tachism, which had by then become a sort of international academicism. In 1961 Pierre Restany organised a demonstration of this activity under the title Free Shoot ( Feu à volonté), the assemblages to be shot at by the viewers being wisely set up in an armoured shooting-gallery. It drew huge crowds and Niki de Saint-Phalle’s name was soon known nationally and internationally.

Once these semi-scandalous events had drawn attention to her, she almost completely abandoned the shooting procedure, with its arbitrary colour and spectator involvement, and her next period was devoted to exorcising a variety of personal and collective obsessions. As Pierre Restany so neatly says, ‘midway between Louise Nevelson and Robert Rauschenberg’, Niki de Saint-Phalle assembled strange altarpieces, almost blasphemous, piling up crucifixes, statues of the Sacred Heart, toy pistols, monstrous animals, celluloid dolls, covering them with a shell of silver paint, as in Blasphemous Episodes, and avoiding both the totemism of Louise Nevelson and the aestheticism of Rauschenberg. In the Everyday Mythologies of 1964 she exhibited a triptych devoted to The Bride, a subject she had already used, and which gives point to her earlier works; doubtless the ridiculous marriage ceremony seemed to her especially characteristic of the everyday mythologies that Gassiot-Talabot had suggested should be targets. In 1965 she began to create Nanas, gigantic and farcical female statues, related to both the age-old Lespugna Venus and the Bal des Quat-z’arts, black and wearing either, in the earliest examples, multicoloured garments made from rags or, later, bright polyester fabric. With reference to the Nanas, Pierre Restany has spoken of ‘Dubuffet reviewed and corrected by Appel’ and ‘Art Brut and the CoBrA style’. Niki de Saint-Phalle was aiming to make her buxom and cheerful Nanas a symbol of the mother-goddess of our time.

In 1966, in collaboration with Tinguely, she built a reclining Nana thirty-five metres long in the Moderna Museet, Stockholm. The entrance was a door between the thighs of Cathedral Nana and inside there was a bar, an exhibition room and a restaurant. In 1967, at the Montreal Exposition Universelle, she organised on the roof of the French Pavilion a war-like confrontation between her Nanas and Tinguely’s infernal machines. In the 1980s the Skinnys were a counterpoint to the Nanas; small lights were attached to these hollow, spindly silhouettes. While still sticking to her favourite subjects—woman, motherhood, love, dreaming—she then moved to the monsters of the Paintings Burst Open of 1990. Moving images are superimposed on a brightly coloured background, the levels interpenetrating to tell a story. ‘I like the idea of the form bursting and coming back to its first form after passing through abstraction. For that I wanted movement, but no visible mechanical system.’ For these works she worked with computer experts to develop a system for animating the canvas.

She made many open-air sculptures: 1966, Hon with Tinguely and Ultvedt (now destroyed) and The Fantastic Paradise for the Moderna Museet, Stockholm; 1967, Nana Dream House at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam and at the Fondation Maeght in Saint-Paul-de-Vence; from 1970 to 1993, The Cyclops, with Tinguely in Milly-la-Forêt; 1972, Golem in Jerusalem; 1973, The Dragon in Knokke-Het-Zoute; 1973–1974, Swimming Pool Nana in St Tropez; 1974, Caroline, Charlotte, Sophie, three giant Nanas in Hanover, the Poet and his Muse in the University of Ulm; since 1979 (unfinished in 1996) The Tarot Garden, inspired by the cards of the Tarot pack, in Garavicchio (Southern Tuscany); 1983, The Stravinsky Fountain with Tingueley in Paris, Sun God in the University of Southern California, San Diego; 1988, Château-Chinon Fountain with Tinguely at the town hall of Château-Chinon; 1988–1989, Serpents’ Heads Fountain at the Long Island Medical Center, (New York); 1990, funerary monument for the Tinguely tomb in the Montparnasse cemetery, Paris, and The Ideal Temple for an ecumenical church in Nîmes; 1991, installation of a Niki Art Museum in Nasu (Tochigi prefecture); 2001, inauguration in Jerusalem of the Noah’s Ark, a park of sculptures in the shape of animals. She has also been involved with performances, designed stage sets (1966, In Praise of Folly ( Éloge de la folie), a ballet by Raymond Petit), artists’ books and many decorative objects (jewellery, perfume bottles).

Beyond their monstrousness, their ogress-like voracity, and their many psychoanalytical meanings, Niki de Saint-Phalle’s creatures are figures in a carnival, jokers full of vitality and a poetic joie de vivre. ‘I have no ideas about works of art. I didn’t go to art school. For me sculpture is not culture, but a way of living. My artistic education came from cathedrals, Facteur Cheval [a postman who, over 25 years of delivering letters, constructed a “palace” from stones he picked up] and the architect Gaudí.’

Group Exhibitions

1961, 1962, Salon Comparaisons, Paris

1961, 1962, 1981, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam

1961, 1968, Museum of Modern Art, New York

1963, Paris Biennale

1963, 1966, 1972, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

1964, Everyday Mythologies (Mythologies Quotidiens), Paris

1965, Narrative Figuration, Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris (organised by Gassiot-Talabot)

1965, Salon de Mai, Paris

1966, Moderna Museet, Stockholm and the Kunsthalle, Bern

1966, 1985, Art Institute, Chicago

1967, Exposition Universelle, Montreal, and the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh

1968, Expansions-Environnement, Musée Galliera, Paris (organised by P. Restany)

1968, ICA (Institute of Contemporary Art), London

1968, 1969, 1985, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago

1969, 1973, Kunstverein, Hannover

1977, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris

1980, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

1988, Venice Biennale

1989, Musée Cantonal des Beaux-Arts, Lausanne

1990, Russian Museum, St Petersburg and Museum of Modern Art, Rijeka

1991, Royal Academy of Arts, London

2001, Hypermental, Kunsthalle, Hamburg (an exhibition on the unreal, the transreal and the reconstruction of reality)

2008, Europop, Kunsthaus Zurich

2008, WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles

2011, Seductive Subversion: Women Pop Artists, 1958–1968, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY

2012, EXPLOSION! Painting as Action, Moderna Museet, Stockholm

Solo Exhibitions

1956, St-Gall

1962, Galerie Rive Droite, Paris

from 1965, regularly at the Galerie Alexander Iolas, Paris, New York, Geneva, Milan

1967, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam

1969, Kunstverein, Hanover; Kunstmuseum, Lucerne

1975, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

1976, Museum Boymans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam; Nordjyllands Kunstmuseum, Aalborg

1979, travelling exhibition in the USA

1980, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris; Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum des Stadt, Duisbourg;Kunsthalle, Nuremberg

1980–1981, 1982–1983, 1986, Space Niky, Tokyo

1987, Kunsthalle von Hypo-Kultursiftung, Munich

1987–1988, Nassau County Museum of Fine Art, New York

1988, Dominican Monastery, Canterbury

1990–1991, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris

1992, Kunst und Ausstellungshalle, Bonn

1993, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, Fribourg

1996, Galerie Vidal-Saint Phalle, Paris (prints)

2001, The Joyful Life of Objects (La Vie Joyeuse des Objets), Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris (the artist’s gift of a collection of twenty pieces)

2002, Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain, Nice (retrospective)

2002, From Niki Mathews to Niki de Saint Phalle, Sprengel Museum, Hanover

2003, The Birth of the Nanas: Niki de Saint Phalle’s Works from the 1960s, Sprengel Museum, Hanover

2007, Tate Liverpool

2010, Museo Fondazione Roma, Rome

2012, Niki de Saint Phalle: Spiel Mit Mir, Max Ernst Museum, Bruhl, Germany

2012, Niki de Saint Phalle on Park Avenue, New York

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Amsterdam (Stedelijk Mus.)

Hanover (Sprengel Mus.): 400 works

Houston (MFA): Gorgo in New York

London (Tate Gal.)

Marseilles (Mus. Cantini): Seated Nana, Negress (1971)

New York (Whitney Mus. of American Art): Black Venus (1967)

Nice (Mus. d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain): 63 paintings and sculptures, 112 works on paper (donated by the artist in 2001)

Paris (BNF): Last Night I Had a Dream

Paris (MNAM-CCI): Crucifixion; The Bride, Eva Maria (1963); The Waldaff (1965)

Paris (Mus. des Arts décoratifs): Nana (sisal, rug); Nana and Man (sisal, rug); Charly (1981, painted polyester, chair); Oval Table (1990, mosaic of glass and mirror on wood); Thread of the Discourse (1980, painted polyester, iron base, electrical parts, lamp); Death Mask (1997, polyester, mosaic of mirrors on wood, iron, lamp); Frog with Helmet (1988, painted polyester, vase); Angel (1993, painted polyester and iron, vase)

Stockholm (Moderna Mus.)

Auction Records

Paris, 4 Nov 1971: Nana (Polyester) FRF 8,000

Paris, 18 March 1972: Napoleon, you’ve got a spider on the ceiling (mask) FRF 30,000

Los Angeles, 22 Jan 1973: Nana, USD 3,750

New York, 6 June 1974: Nana (plaster) USD 3,000

New York, 28 May 1976: Nana (1976, mixed media/cut paper, 20 × 22 ins/51 × 56 cm) USD 550

Paris, 22 March 1977: Snake (Polyester, 67 × 32¾ × 4 ins/170 × 83 × 10 cm) FRF 4,000

London, 5 April 1979: Nana (c. 1967, painted polyester, h. 30¾ ins/78 cm) GBP 1,400

London, 3 July 1980: Woman in a Multi-Coloured Interior (oil on canvas, 28¾ × 36 ins/73 × 91.5 cm) GBP 700

New York, 1 Nov 1984: snake (plaster with acrylic paint, 19¾ × 24½ ins/50 × 62 cm) USD 9,500

London, 13 Feb 1985: Here’s to you, Pablo (felt pen, 21½ × 29½ ins/54.8 × 74.8 cm) GBP 1,600

New York, 3 May 1985: Jane (1965, fabric and coloured string/papier-mâché, 42¼ × 30¾ × 26¼ ins/107 × 78 × 66.5 cm) USD 9,000

London, 26 June 1986: Nana (painted fibreglass, 111 × 67 × 39¼ ins/282 × 170 × 100 cm) GBP 22,000

New York, 4 Nov 1987: Untitled (c. 1978, acrylic and gold paint/plaster, h. 90 ins/228.7 cm) USD 60,000

Paris, 4 Dec 1987: Blind Man in a Field (1978-1979, painted plaster) FRF 60,000

New York, 20 Feb 1988: Man reading the Newspaper, Seated on a Snake (1980, painted ceramic, 6 × 9½ ins/15 × 24 cm) USD 2,200

London, 25 Feb 1988: Double Creature (painted polyester, 5½ × 9½ × 7¾ ins/14 × 24 × 20 cm) GBP 4,620

Lokeren, 8 Oct 1988: Elephant (painted polyester, h. 11¾ ins/30 cm) BEF 190,000

New York, 8 Oct 1988: Lady and the Dragon (painted polyester, 5¼ × 9 × 10 ins/13.6 × 22.8 × 25.3 cm) USD 13,750

Paris, 21 Nov 1988: Study for a Large Tapestry (c. 1970, acrylic/mounted paper, 85 × 120 ins/215 × 305 cm) FRF 130,000

London, 6 April 1989: Snake (painted polyester, h. 65¼ ins/165.5 cm) GBP 22,000

New York, 3 May 1989: Sun Goddess with Nana (1980, moulded and painted Polyester, feathers and electric lightbulbs, 66¼ × 35 × 13½ ins/168 × 89 × 34 cm) USD 82,500

Paris, 24 May 1989: Frog (polychrome in Polyester, sculpture) FRF 21,000

Paris, 12 June 1989: Nana (painted resin, sculpture, h. 24¾ ins/63 cm) FRF 380,000

Paris, 13 Oct 1989: Pink Heart (1964, mixed media, 25½ × 31½ ins/65 × 80 cm) FRF 300,000

New York, 9 Nov 1989: Camel (painted polyester, 62 × 66 ins/157.5 × 167.5 cm) USD 104,500

Paris, 13 Dec 1989: Nana (sculpture in painted plaster, h. 7½ ins/19 cm) FRF 65,000

Paris, 8 April 1990: Nana (pencil, felt and collage/card, 18 × 12¼ ins/46 × 31 cm) FRF 52,000

New York, 8 May 1990: Palais de Justice (1979, acrylic and pencil/Polyester, h. 31½ ins/80 cm) USD 66,000

Copenhagen, 30 May 1990: Painted Road (1960, diam. 6¼ ins/16 cm) DKK 22,000

London, 28 June 1990: Seated Nana (1968, hand-painted polyester, 28¾ × 32 × 30½ ins/73 × 81.2 × 77.5 cm) GBP 99,000

Copenhagen, 14–15 Nov 1990: Object (1961, painted frying pan, diam. 12¼ ins/31 cm) DKK 25,000

Paris, 16 Dec 1990: Armchair with Snakes (stratified Polyester and coloured polyurethane varnish, h. 40½ ins/103 cm, l. 32 ins/81 cm, w. 28¼ ins/72 cm) FRF 315,000

Copenhagen, 30 May 1991: Nana (painted polyester, h. 9¾ ins/25 cm) DKK 46,000

London, 17 Oct 1991: Table (acrylic/fibreglass, h. 28¾ ins/73 cm) GBP 13,200

Paris, 2 Dec 1991: Large Armchair with Snake (painted polyester, h. 40½ ins/103 cm, w. 32¼ ins/82 cm, prof. 28 ins/71 cm) FRF 125,000

Paris, 4 Dec 1991: Dancer (1966, plaster original, h. 25¼ ins/64 cm) FRF 175,000

Lokeren, 21 March 1992: Nana (painted polyester) BEF 950,000

Paris, 1 Oct 1992: Cathedral (1961, rifle shooting on an assemblage of objects, skulls, ornamental figures and toys, 28 × 24¼ ins/71 × 61.5 cm) FRF 80,000

London, 15 Oct 1992: Tree of Life (1991, painted aluminium, Polyester and iron, 27½ × 14½ × 11¾ ins/70 × 37 × 30 cm) GBP 5,500

Paris, 26 Nov 1992: Snake Armchair (1982, polychrome polyester, 40½ × 32¼ × 23½ ins/103 × 82 × 60 cm) FRF 120,000

London, 3 Dec 1992: Nana with Dog (1987, painted polyester, h. 15¾ ins/40 cm) GBP 10,450; Nana (painted polyester, wall relief, 56 × 50½ × 3¾ ins/142.4 × 128 × 9.5 cm) GBP 39,600

Amsterdam, 9 Dec 1992: Untitled (1968, painted plaster, h. 6 ins/15.5 cm) NLG 21, 850

New York, 4 May 1993: Table and Footstool (table: 28½ × 32 × 24 ins/72.4 × 81.3 × 61 cm; tabouret: 15 × 15 × 12½ ins/38.1 × 38.1 × 31.8 cm) USD 25,300

Stockholm, 10–12 May 1993: Bull (varnished plaster, h. 15¾ ins/40 cm, l. 24½ ins/62 cm) SEK 55,000

Copenhagen, 3 June 1993: Bull (painted polyester, h. 15¾ ins/40 cm, l. 23½ ins/60 cm) DKK 65,000

Paris, 18 June 1993: Cow and Man Reading a Newspaper (1974, synthetic resin and vinyl gouache, collection of two sculptures, man 9 × 7½ × 5 ins/22 × 19 × 13 cm; cow 24¾ × 17¾ × 6 ins/63 × 45 × 15 cm) FRF 150,000

London, 24 June 1993: Shooting Gallery (assemblage of plaster, metal and wood/panel with gold spray paint, 31½ × 27 × 5 ins/80 × 68.5 × 12.7 cm) GBP 31,050

Zurich, 24 June 1993: Dear Daniel Claude (1975, mixed media, collage, watercolour and pencil, 8¼ × 10¾ ins/21.2 × 27.5 cm) CHF 9,000

Lokeren, 9 Oct 1993: Cow (painted polyester, h. 21½ ins/54.5 cm, w. 25½ ins/64.5 cm) BEF 230,000

Stockholm, 30 Nov 1993: Female figure (1968, polychrome painted clay, h. 8 ins/20.5 cm) SEK 67,000

New York, 25–26 Feb 1994: Untitled (painted polyester, cow 26 × 16 × 18 ins/66 × 40.6 × 45.7 cm; man 8½ × 5¼ × 7 ins/21.6 × 13.3 × 17.8 cm) USD 18,400

Paris, 24 June 1994: Little Heart (1967, collage and mixed media/canvas, 24½ × 20¾ ins/62 × 53 cm) FRF 180,000

Amsterdam, 31 May 1995: Fish (glazed terracotta/iron base, l. 32 ins/81 cm) NLG 12,980

Lokeren, 7 Oct 1995: Snake-Vase (bronze, h. 20¾ ins/53 cm, w. 10¾ ins/27.5 cm) BEF 200,000

London, 26 Oct 1995: Clarice Chair Woman (painted polyester, 46¾ × 45 × 33 ins/119 × 114 × 84 cm) GBP 27,600

New York, 16 Nov 1995: Sphynx (painted polyester, 11½ × 16½ × 11 ins/29.2 × 41.9 × 27.9 cm) USD 17,250

Paris, 13 Dec 1995: Shooting Range with Aircraft (1961, assemblage of objects/panel with drips of paint, 51¼ × 76¾ ins/130 × 195 cm) FRF 135,000

Copenhagen, 12 March 1996: Composition (1968, watercolour, gouache and soft chalks, 25½ × 18½ ins/65 × 47 cm) DKK 29,000

Paris, 10 June 1996: Model for a Swimming Poll Nana (pencil, 15¾ × 11½ ins/40 × 29 cm) FRF 13,600

London, 26 June 1996: The Poet and his Muse (1973, painted polyester, 94½ × 56 × 22½ ins/240 × 142 × 57 cm) GBP 166,500

Paris, 29 Nov 1996: Footballers (1993, resin and stratified Polyester, 13¾ × 23 × 16¼ ins/35 × 58.5 × 41 cm) FRF 130,000

Amsterdam, 10 Dec 1996: Nana (c. 1967, painted plaster, sculpture, h. 8 ins/20.5 cm) NLG 20,757

London, 29 May 1997: Clarice Chair Woman; Clarice Chair Man (1981-1982, painted polyester, a pair, 47½ × 45 × 33 ins/120.7 × 114.3 × 83.8 cm and 52½ × 47 × 33 ins/133.4 × 119.4 × 83.8 cm) GBP 36,700

London, 25 June 1997: The Bride (1963, assemblage, 72 × 70 × 39¼ ins/182 × 178 × 100 cm) GBP 128,000

London, 23 Oct 1997: Garden of Goddesses (1988, ceramic, glass and mosaic, 23 × 72¼ ins/58.5 × 183.5 cm) GBP 19,550

Zurich, 18 Nov 1997: Wandering Knight (1962, assemblage, 24½ × 19¼ ins/62 × 49 cm) CHF 50,000

Paris, 18 Sept 1999: The Prophet (1990, polyester, golden leaves, 106 × 28 × 28 ins/270 × 70 × 70 cm) FRF 450,000

London, 8 Dec 1999: Nana (papier-mâché, wool, string, resin, oil, collage on wood, 41 × 35 × 19 ins/104 × 88 × 47 cm) GBP 60,000

Paris, 27 Oct 2000: Gwendoline (coloured pastel, 15 × 10 × 7 ins/37 × 25 × 19 cm) FRF 310,000

Paris, 27 Oct 2000: Nana, Bathroom (coloured polyester, 102 × 79 × 79 ins/260 × 200 × 200 cm) FRF 1,100,000

New York, 15 May 2001: White and Black Altar (1962, oil, plaster, elements, metal wire, taxidermied owl, 98 × 79 × 14 ins/250 × 200 × 35 cm) USD 65,000

London, 28 June 2001: Monkey and Child (1998, painted polyester, 45 × 35 ins/114 × 88 cm) GBP 30,000

London, 27 June 2002: Lou Lou and Mimi (1965, fabric, paper, string, collage, fiberglass, wood, h. 82 ins/208 cm) GBP 85,000

New York, 12 Nov 2002: Bathers (1984, polychromed polyester, fiberglass, 108 × 112 × 120 ins/274 × 284 × 304 cm) USD 175,000

Amsterdam, 28 May 2003: Little Horse (1963, plastic toys, fabric, cotton thread, h. 13 ins/32 cm) USD 95,000

New York, 12 Nov 2003: Moon (1987, glass tile, mirror tile, painted polyester, 118 × 48 × 41 ins/300 × 121 × 103 cm) USD 320,000

London, 24 June 2004: Large Chair with Snake - Table, Stool and Urn (painted polyester) GBP 50,000

Paris, 18 July 2004: Vie en rose (1968, painted polyester, 107 × 91 × 25 ins/272 × 230 × 64 cm) EUR 360,000

London, 23 June 2005: Two Figures (Love) (1975, painted polyester, 19 × 19 ins/47 × 47 cm) USD 87,559

New York, 23 Sept 2005: Half and Half II (1981, painted cast polyester and metal, 10 × 9.5 ins/26 × 24 cm) USD 31,200

London, 23 June 2006: Nana (1969, painted plaster on a welded iron base, 30 × 12 ins/75 × 30 cm) USD 166,143

London, 9 Feb 2007: Tir-edition MAT (1964, paint, plaster and plastic on plywood, 29 × 22 ins/73 × 55cm) USD 10,638

New York, 16 May 2007: Dear, Caro, Cher (1988, painted ceramic, mirror and glass mosaic, 20 × 49 ins/50 × 125 cm) USD 51,000

New York, 8 Feb 2008: Untitled—From Arizona Wild Life (1970, colour lithograph, 20 × 26 ins/50 × 65 cm) USD 1,375

Paris, 26 May 2008: Dream Machine (1970, fibreglass and painted polyester, 110 × 137 ins/280 × 346 cm) EUR 581,050

Paris, 27 May 2009: The Bench (1989, painted polyester, resin and mirror mosaic, 63 × 55 ins/161 × 140 cm) EUR 553,000

Paris, 17 Nov 2009: Fish Vase (1992, polyester painted polyurethane, ceramic, 21 × 32 ins/54 × 82 cm) EUR 43,000

New York, 13 May 2010: Nana on a Dolphin (1994, painted polyester, 33 × 11 ins/85 × 27 cm) USD 218,500

Paris, 01 March 2011: Dear Philippe, How Are You? (8.5 × 11 ins/22 × 28 cm) EUR 10,000

New York, 7 Nov 2011: Nana on an Elephant (1979, acrylic and crayon on plaster, 5 × 8 ins/13 × 19 cm) USD 20,000

Paris, 24 Sept 2012: Bat’s Heart (1964, paint and various objects on wood, 30 × 36 ins/76 × 91 cm) EUR 96,750

Bibliography