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Rothko, Mark pseudonym of Rothkowitz, Marcusfree

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Active from 1913 in the USA.

Born 25 September 1903, in Dvinsk, Russia (now Daugavpils, Latvia); died 25 or 27 February 1970, in New York.

Painter (including gouache), draughtsman.

The Ten group. School of New York.

ROTHKO, Mark: signature or monogram (Copyright www.ArtistsSignatures.com)

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Mark Rothko’s family arrived in the USA in 1913 in Portland, Oregon. He attended Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, having received a grant to study mathematics. Hesitant about his direction, he took classes with George Bridgman and then with Max Weber at the Art Students League in New York in 1925 and 1926. From 1929 to the end of the 1950s, he taught drawing to children at the Jewish Center of Brooklyn. Along with Adolph Gottlieb, whom he had met at the end of the 1920s, he founded the expressionist group The Ten in 1935. During the American depression in the 1930s, he worked on the WPA Federal Art Project in New York. He also taught at the Center Academy in Brooklyn. Before World War II, he and Gottlieb brought together a group made up of Arshile Gorky, David Smith, and Barnett Newman, sharing the same aesthetic demands. In 1948, he and Robert Motherwell, Newman, and William Baziotes founded the Subjects of the Artists school, which later became known as Studio 35. During the summers of 1947 and 1949, he taught at the California School of Fine Arts in San Francisco. After travelling throughout Europe for several different exhibitions, Rothko was named a visiting artist at the University of Colorado in 1955 and at Tulane University, New Orleans in 1956. In 1969, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Yale University.

Prior to 1950, Rothko’s work depicted nudes, female figures, interiors, the New York subway, and street scenes, in which the figures walk like mannequins. At that time, he was influenced by Max Weber and through him, Milton Avery, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Paul Cézanne, and the Renaissance. At the end of the 1940s, he was interested in many diverse subjects, including Greek mythology (such as the Agamemnon trilogy by Aeschylus, conveyed in his painting The Omen of the Eagle), philosophy (notably Nietzsche, in The Birth of Tragedy), Jungian psychoanalysis, as well as primitive arts and religions. He was also in contact with the Surrealists who had come from Europe between 1941 and 1945 and who gathered in Peggy Guggenheim’s gallery, Art of This Century. In 1945, Guggenheim exhibited the works from his Surrealist period, which were influenced by Max Ernst, Roberto Matta, and especially André Breton and Gorky. Rothko’s works featured divinities or monstrous apparitions depicted in shaded, almost monochrome tones and had vague titles: Baptismal Scene, Ancestral Imprint, Magic Vessels.

Between 1947 and 1948, crucial years in the development of American painting, Rothko definitively abandoned realism and chose to pursue radical abstraction. In his transitional works, the last evocations of African idols and suggestions of underwater landscapes progressively lose their outlines and subsist only in blurred forms floating in the space of the canvas. At that same time, he abandoned oil paint for watercolour and acrylic, which enabled him to achieve a greater luminosity. The influence of the Russian Constructivism of Kazimir Malevich and the Neo-Plasticism of Piet Mondrian has been detected in Rothko’s fluid, floating forms. From 1950, these forms were grouped in rectangles of diffuse colours, horizontally positioned. Two or three rectangles would be disposed horizontally across the width of the canvas, the dimensions of which were an important element of the work, against a background whose tones in the same colour range lightly distinguished them both from the edges of the canvas and from each other. Alternatively, the colour relationships are those of the same colour in different degrees of luminosity. In this way, Rothko’s contribution put into practice the ‘field painting’ that he attributed to the influence of Henri Matisse, whom he felt to be the first painter to create surface paintings. Shortly before 1950, while still in the process of finding his definitive expression, he painted Homage to Matisse.

Rothko’s principle of field painting, which implied the largest dimensions possible, materialised in several important architectural decorations: the paintings in the Seagram Building in New York, designed by Mies van der Rohe; and especially the 14 paintings commissioned by John and Dominique de Ménil for the non-denominational chapel in the Institute of Religion and Human Development in the Texas Medical Center in Houston, referred to by Rothko as ‘the most important project of my life’. He worked on this commission from 1967 until his death in 1970. Various commentators have seen a religious or spiritual motivation, ranging from Zen Buddhism to Judaism, in his work – interpretations that Rothko always vigorously refuted. In the last years of his life, his range of sumptuously warm, sunny tones was totally replaced by a progressively more sombre palette, soon to be limited to blacks and deep purples, perhaps reflecting the depression to which he was prone and which ultimately led to his suicide.

Group Exhibitions

1940, New York, NY (an event relating to The Ten group, with Marcel Gromaire and Joseph Solman)

1945, Art of this Century, Peggy Guggenheim Gallery, New York, NY

1948, Paris, France (a confrontation between the American and French avant-gardes)

1948 and 1958, Venice Biennale, Italy

1951, Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY

1951, São Paulo Biennale, Brazil

1954 – 1959, various exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY

1955, Fifty Years of Art in the United States (Cinquante Ans d’Art aux États-Unis), Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, France

1958, Carnegie International Exhibition, Pittsburgh, PA

1958, The New American Painting, As Shown in Eight European Countries (travelling exhibition ending at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY)

1959, Documenta, Kassel, Germany

1968, The Art of the Real, 1948 – 1968 (L’Art du Réel 1948 – 1968), Centre National d’Art Contemporain, Paris, France

2006, Black Paintings: Robert Rauschenberg, Ad Reinhardt, Mark Rothko, Frank Stella, Haus der Kunst, Munich, Germany (an exhibition examining the importance of the black paintings in the artists’ oeuvres)

2008, Traces of the Sacred (Traces du Sacré), Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France (an exhibition exploring the relationship between art and spirituality from the 19th century to the present day)

Solo Exhibitions

1933, Portland Art Museum, OR; Contemporary Arts Gallery, New York, NY

1954, Art Institute, Chicago, IL

1957, Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, TX

1960, Phillips Gallery, Washington, DC

1961, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY; Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

1962, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France (travelling exhibition in Europe)

1972, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, France

1978, Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY

1987, Tate Gallery, London, UK

1999, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France

2001, Mark Rothko: The Realist Years, Pace Wildenstein Gallery, Beverly Hills, CA

2006, Leeum Samsung Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea

2008, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany (retrospective)

2008, Tate Modern, London, UK

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Basel (Kunstmus.): No. 1 (1964, mixed media on canvas)

Buffalo (Albright-Knox AG): Orange and Yellow (1956, oil on canvas)

Düsseldorf (Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen)

Fort Worth (MMA): Light Cloud, Dark Cloud (1957, oil on canvas); Untitled (1969, acrylic on paper)

Houston (MFA): Painting (1961, oil on canvas)

London (Tate Collection): Untitled (c. 1950 – 1952, oil on canvas); Light Red Over Black (1957, oil on canvas); Black on Maroon (1958, oil on canvas)

New Haven (Yale University AG): Untitled (1954, oil on unprimed canvas)

New York (Brooklyn Mus.): Untitled (1930 – 1935, oil on black linen); Untitled (1947, oil on canvas)

New York (MoMA): Number 1 (Untitled) (1948, oil on canvas); Number 5/Number 22 (19491950, oil on canvas); Number 10 (1950, oil on canvas)

New York (Solomon R. Guggenheim Mus.): Violet, Black, Orange, Yellow on White and Red (1949, oil on canvas)

New York (Whitney Mus. of American Art): Baptismal Scene (1945, watercolour); Untitled (1953, mixed media on canvas)

Paris (Mus. National AM – Centre de Creation Industrielle): No. 14 (Browns over Dark) (1963, oil and acrylic on canvas)

Washington DC (NGA): Underground Fantasy (c. 1940); approximately 300 paintings and works on paper and 650 sketches

Auction Records

Milan, 27 March 1962: Composition, ITL 3,600,000

New York, 13 May 1964: Two Dark Rectangles on Red Background, USD 10,000

New York, 13 Oct 1965: Red Number 22, USD 15,500

New York, 18 Nov 1970: No. 16, USD 85,000

New York, 26 Oct 1972: Orange, Red, Yellow, USD 70,000

New York, 1 May 1974: Yellow and White, USD 110,000

Milan, 16 March 1976: Composition (gouache, 6¼ × 5 ins/16 × 12.5 cm) ITL 200,000,000

New York, 27 May 1976: Sienna, Orange and Black on Dark Brown (1962, oil on canvas, 76 × 69 ins/193 × 175 cm) USD 190,000

New York, 20 Oct 1977: Brown, Orange, Blue on Maroon (1963, oil on canvas, 81 × 74¾ ins/206 × 190 cm) USD 130,000

New York, 8 Nov 1979: Dark Red, White, Light Red on Red (1969, oil on paper remounted/canvas, 33 × 25¼ ins/83.8 × 64.2 cm) USD 50,000

New York, 13 Nov 1980: Untitled (1945, watercolour and black ink/mounted paper/cardboard, 21¼ × 14¼ ins/54 × 36 cm) USD 6,000

Milan, 17 Nov 1981: The Scrolls of Memory (Indian ink, watercolour, 11½ × 8 ins/29.5 × 20.3 cm) ITL 9,500,000

New York, 11 Nov 1982: Brown, Orange, Blue on Maroon (1963, oil on canvas, 81 × 76¼ ins/206 × 193.5 cm) USD 310,000

New York, 9 Nov 1983: Untitled (c. 1944, black ink/paper, 15¼ × 22½ ins/39 × 57 cm) USD 11,000;

Untitled (1946, watercolour, 22 × 30 ins/56 × 76 cm) USD 26,000;

Black, Maroons, and White (1958, oil on canvas, 102½ × 166 ins/260.4 × 421.7 cm) USD 1,650,000

New York, 2 May 1985: Red and Pink on Pink (1953, tempera/mounted paper/panel, 39½ × 25¼ ins/100.5 × 64.2 cm) USD 185,000

New York, 12 Nov 1986: Light, Earth, and Blue (1954, oil on canvas, 75½ × 67 ins/191.5 × 170 cm) USD 600,000

New York, 5 May 1987: Yellow, White, Blue over Yellow on Gray (1954, oil on canvas, 94½ × 59¾ ins/240.3 × 151.8 cm) USD 840,000

New York, 3 May 1988: Green Rectangles Separated from Blue (acrylic/paper, 23¾ × 18 ins/60.5 × 45.6 cm) USD 187,000

New York, 2 May 1989: Four Reds (1957, oil on canvas, 81 × 51 ins/205.7 × 129.5 cm) USD 1,870,000; Untitled (1969, oil on paper/canvas, 70 × 40½ ins/177.7 × 102.8 cm) USD 451,000

New York, 5 Oct 1989: Untitled (oil/plaster/cardboard, 7 × 5 ins/17.7 × 12.7 cm) USD 16,500

New York, 7 Nov 1989: White on Red (1956, oil on canvas, 65¼ × 57 ins/166 × 144.8 cm) USD 2,750,000

New York, 8 Nov 1989: Black Surface in Reds (1958, oil on canvas, 69½ × 92 ins/176.5 × 233.7 cm) USD 3,630,000

New York, 7 May 1990: Brown, Black, and Blue (1958, oil on canvas, 69¾ × 60 ins/177 × 152.4 cm) USD 3,080,000

New York, 4 Oct 1990: Untitled (ink and watercolour/paper, 11 × 8½ ins/27.9 × 21.6 cm) USD 16,500

New York, 7 Nov 1990: Tin and Black on Red (1957, oil on canvas, 69½ × 53½ ins/176.5 × 136 cm) USD 3,190,000

Paris, 9 Dec 1990: Untitled (1938, gouache, 11¾ × 16 ins/30 × 40.5 cm) FRF 70,000

London, 27 June 1991: Saffron (1957, oil on canvas, 69¾ × 54 ins/177 × 137 cm) GBP 770,000

New York, 25 – 26 Feb 1992: Untitled (oil on paper/canvas, 24 × 17½ ins/61 × 44.5 cm) USD 107,250

New York, 6 May 1992: Untitled (1950, oil on canvas, 33 × 30 ins/83.8 × 76.2 cm) USD 429,000

New York, 18 Nov 1992: Untitled (1957, oil on canvas, 79¼ × 69 ins/201 × 175.5 cm) USD 1,100,000; Dark on Light (1954, oil on canvas, 90¼ × 58½ ins/229 × 148.5 cm) USD 1,210,000

New York, 3 May 1993: Black Scratch (1957, oil and mixture/canvas, 68 × 38½ ins/173 × 97.5 cm) USD 882,500

New York, 10 Nov 1993: Untitled (pencil, ink and gouache/paper, 26 × 20 ins/66 × 50.8 cm) USD 25,300

New York, 3 May 1994: Four Reds (1957, oil on canvas, 81 × 50 ins/205.7 × 127 cm) USD 1,047,500

New York, 2 May 1995: Untitled (1968, oil on paper/canvas, 38¼ × 25 ins/97.2 × 63.5 cm) USD 310,500

London, 29 Nov 1995: Green, White, Green on Blue (1969, oil on paper/cardboard, 71¼ × 40½ ins/181 × 103 cm) GBP 232,500

New York, 8 May 1996: Brown on Blue (oil on canvas, 92 × 70½ ins/233.7 × 179.1 cm) USD 1,542,500

New York, 19 Nov 1996: Untitled (Composition) (1958, oil/panel, 24 × 19¼ ins/61 × 48.6 cm) USD 123,500

New York, 20 Nov 1996: Untitled (1969, acrylic/canvas, 68 × 60 ins/172.8 × 152.4 cm) USD 882,500

London, 5 Dec 1996: Green, Blue, Green on Blue (1968, acrylic/paper/canvas, 40½ × 26 ins/102.9 × 66 cm) GBP 232,500

New York, 6 May 1997: No. 19 (1960, oil on canvas, 69¼ × 69 ins/175.9 × 175.3 cm) USD 2,202,500

New York, 7 May 1997: Untitled (Yellow, Red, and Blue) (1953, oil on canvas, 73¾ × 61 ins/187.4 × 154.9 cm) USD 1,982,500

New York, 18 – 19 Nov 1997: Untitled (1961, oil on canvas, 93 × 80 ins/236.2 × 203.2 cm) USD 1,872,500

New York, 19 Nov 1997: No. 14 (1960, oil on canvas, 114½ × 105¾ ins/290.8 × 268.6 cm) USD 5,942,500

New York, 12 May 1998: Untitled (1951, oil on canvas, 93 × 57 ins/237 × 145 cm) USD 3,300,000

New York, 17 Nov 1999: No. 15 (1952, oil on canvas, 91 × 79 ins/232 × 201 cm) USD 10,000,000

New York, 17 May 2000: Yellow over Purple (1956, oil on canvas, 69 × 59 ins/176 × 151 cm) USD 13,000,000

New York, 15 May 2001: Black and Red on Red (1962, oil on paper on canvas, 30 × 22 ins/75 × 55 cm) USD 1,400,000

New York, 13 Nov 2001: Untitled (acrylic/paper/panel, 33 × 25 ins/84 × 64 cm) USD 1,100,000

London, 6 Feb 2002: No. 15 (1949, oil on canvas, 67 × 42 ins/170 × 106 cm) GBP 1,500,000

New York, 13 Nov 2002: No. 18 (1947, oil on canvas, 56 × 46 ins/141 × 117 cm) USD 1,100,000

New York, 14 May 2003: White and Black on Wine (1958, oil on canvas, 105 × 166 ins/267 × 422 cm) USD 14,600,000

New York, 11 Nov 2003: Untitled (1963, oil on canvas, 69 × 64 ins/175 × 162 cm) USD 6,400,000

New York, 11 May 2004: No. 15 (1958, oil on canvas, 93 × 87 ins/237 × 221 cm) USD 8,000,000

London, 24 June 2004: Untitled (1969, tempera/paper/canvas, 58 × 41 ins/147 × 103 cm) GBP 820,000

New York, 11 May 2005: Untitled (1964, oil on canvas, 81 × 69 ins/205.8 × 175.3 cm) USD 9,000,000; No. 10 (1949, oil on canvas, 60 × 29 ins/155 × 73.7 cm) USD 1,500,000

New York, 8 Nov 2005: Untitled (1960, oil on paper laid on canvas, 26 × 19 ins/66.1 × 48.3 cm) USD 2,250,000; Untitled (1959, oil on paper laid on canvas, 24 × 19 ins/61 × 48.3 cm) USD 1,300,000; Homage to Matisse (1953, oil on canvas, 106 × 51 ins/269.3 × 129.6 cm) USD 20,000,000; Blue over Red (1953, oil on canvas, 65 × 35 ins/165.1 × 88.9 cm) USD 5,000,000

New York, 10 May 2006: Untitled Composition (1947, oil on canvas, 39 × 25 ins/99.1 × 63.5 cm) USD 900,000; White, Orange, and Yellow (1953, tempera on paper on board, 40 × 26 ins/101.6 × 66.1 cm) USD 3,700,000; Untitled Composition (1968, oil on paper on board, 33 × 26 ins/83.9 × 66.1 cm) USD 2,600,000

New York, 15 Nov 2006: Untitled (1968, acrylic on paper laid on panel, 39 × 26 ins/99.1 × 66.1 cm) USD 1,600,000; Untitled Composition (1948, oil on canvas, 56 × 44 ins/142.3 × 111.8 cm) USD 1,500,000

New York, 15 May 2007: White Centre, Yellow, Pink, and Lavender on Rose (1950, oil on canvas, 81 × 56 ins/205.8 × 142.3 cm) USD 65,000,000; Untitled (1968, acrylic on paper on board, 24 × 19 ins/61 × 48.3 cm) USD 2,700,000

New York, 13 Nov 2007: Untitled (Red, Blue, Orange) (1955, oil on canvas, 66¾ × 49½ ins/169.2 × 125.4 cm) USD 34,201,000; Green, Blue (Green on Blue) (1968, acrylic on paper laid down on canvas, 40¾ × 26½ ins/102.9 × 67.3 cm) USD 6,089,000; Untitled (Black and Gray) (1969, oil on canvas, 68 × 60¼ ins/172.7 × 152.7 cm) USD 10,681,000; No. 7 (Dark over Light) (1954, oil on canvas, 90¼ × 58¾ ins/229.2 × 149.2 cm) USD 21,041,000

New York, 13 May 2008: No. 15 (1952, oil on canvas, 92 × 80 ins/233.3 × 203.2 cm) USD 50,441,000

London, 30 June 2008: Black, White, Blue (c. 1963, acrylic on paper laid down on panel, 29½ × 21¾ ins/74.9 × 55.2 cm) GBP 2,505,250

New York, 10 Nov 2009: Blue, Red, Black on Red (1967, acrylic on paper laid down on panel, 27¾ × 18 ins/70 × 45.7 cm) USD 2,042,500; Untitled (Gray and Mauve) (1969, acrylic on paper laid down on canvas, 46½ × 33½ ins/118.1 × 84.5 cm) USD 1,986,500

New York, 11 Nov 2009: Orange, Red, Orange (oil on paper mounted on panel, 29¼ × 21 ins/73.7 × 53 cm) USD 3,386,500

New York, 12 May 2010: Untitled (1961, oil on canvas, 93¼ × 80¼ ins/236.5 × 203.5 cm) USD 31,442,500

New York, 9 Nov 2010: Untitled (1955, oil on canvas, 91¾ × 69¼ ins/232.7 × 175.3 cm) USD 22,482,500; Untitled (1968, acrylic on paper mounted on board, 33½ × 26 ins/84.5 × 65.5 cm) USD 1,082,500

New York, 11 May 2011: Untitled No. 17(1961, oil on canvas, 93 × 76 ins/236.2 × 193 cm) USD 33,682,500

New York, 8 Nov 2011: White Cloud (1956, oil on canvas, 66½ × 63 ins/168.9 × 159.7 cm) USD 18,562,500

New York, 8 May 2012: Orange, Red, Yellow (1961, oil on canvas, 93 × 81½ ins/236.2 × 206.4 cm) USD 88,882,500

New York, 13 Nov 2012: No. 1 (Royal Red and Blue) (1954, oil on canvas, 113¾ × 67¾ ins/288.9 × 171.5 cm) USD 75,122,500

London, 12 Feb 2013: Untitled (1969, oil on paper laid down on canvas, 70 × 40¾ ins/177.8 × 102.9 cm) GBP 2,561,250

New York, 15 May 2013: Untitled (Black on Maroon) (1958, oil on canvas, 72 × 45 ins/182.8 × 114.3 cm) USD 27,003,750

New York, 12 Nov 2013: No. 11 (Untitled) (1957, oil on canvas, 79½ × 70 ins/202 × 177 cm) USD 46,085,000 (premium)

New York, 14 Nov 2013: Untitled (1959, oil on paper laid on canvas, 29½ × 21½ ins/75 × 55 cm) USD 3,693,000 (premium)

New York, 14 May 2014: Untitled (1964, oil on paper mounted on canvas, 25½ × 19¼ ins/65 × 49 cm) USD 2,629,000 (premium)

New York, 15 May 2014: Untitled (Red, Blue, Orange) (1955, oil on canvas, 66 × 49 ins/159 × 125 cm) USD 56,165,000 (premium);Untitled (Season’s Greetings) (c. 1955, gouache on paper, 9¼ × 6¼ ins/24 × 16 cm) USD 131,000 (premium);Untitled (1962, oil on paper laid on panel, 12 × 9 ins/31 × 23 cm) USD 1,085,000 (premium)

New York, 11 Nov 2014: No. 21 (Red, Brown, Black, and Orange ) (1951, oil on canvas, 95 × 64 ins/241.5 × 162.5 cm) USD 44,965,000;Untitled (1969, acrylic on paper laid on canvas, 76 × 48 ins/193 × 122 cm) USD 3,525,000

New York, 13 May 2015: No. 10 (1958, oil on canvas, 94¼ × 69¼ ins/239.4 × 175.9 cm) USD 81,925,000;Untitled (1969, acrylic on paper laid on board, 39 × 25½ ins/99.3 × 64.7 cm) USD 3,973,000;Wine, Rust, Blue on Black (1968, acrylic on paper laid down on board, 23¾ × 18½ ins/60.3 × 47.3 cm) USD 3,189,000

Bibliography

  • Janis, Sidney: Abstract and Surrealist Art in America, Reynal and Hitchcock, New York, 1944.
  • ‘Mark Rothko’, in Possibilities, no. 1, 1947.
  • Collier, Oskar: ‘Mark Rothko’, in Musée de poche, Georges Fall, Paris, 1947.
  • Carnduff Ritchie, Andrew: Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1951.
  • Hess, Thomas B.: Abstract Painting, Viking Press, New York, 1951.
  • Gossen, E. C.: ‘Rothko: The Omnibus Image’, in Art News, January 1961.
  • Robertson, B.: Rothko, exhibition catalogue, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, 1961.
  • Selz, P.: Mark Rothko, exhibition catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1961.
  • Villa, Emilio: Idée de Rothko, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1961.
  • Rothko, exhibition catalogue, Malborough Fine Art Gallery, London, 1964.
  • Ragon, Michel: Dictionnaire des artistes contemporains, Libraires Associés, Paris, 1964.
  • Sollers, Philippe: ‘Le Mur du sens, réflexions sur les peintures de M. Rothko’, in Arts de France, no. 4, 1964.
  • Haftmann, Werner: Rothko, exhibition catalogue, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 1972.
  • Waldman, D.: Mark Rothko: A Retrospective, Abrams, New York; Éditions du Chêne, Paris, 1978.
  • Rosenblum, R.: Mark Rothko: Notes on Rothko’s Surrealist Years, exhibition catalogue, Pace Gallery, New York, 1981.
  • Ashton, Dore: About Rothko, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983.
  • Chave, A.: Mark Rothko: Subjects, exhibition catalogue, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, 1983.
  • Sandler, I.: Mark Rothko: Paintings, 1948 – 1969, exhibition catalogue, Pace Gallery, New York, 1983.
  • Clearwater, B./Ashton, D. (intro.): Mark Rothko: Works on Paper, exhibition catalogue, National Gallery of Art, Washington (DC), 1984.
  • Anfam, David: ‘Mark Rothko at the Tate Gallery’, in Art International, no. 1, 1987.
  • Wheeler, Daniel: L’Art du XXe siècle, Flammarion, Paris, 1992.
  • Ashton, Dore/Clearwater, Bonnie: Mark Rothko – Œuvres sur papier, Adam Biro, Paris, 1993.
  • Anfam, David: Mark Rothko – Catalogue Raisonné, National Art Gallery, Washington (DC), 1995.
  • Sandler, Irving (ed.): Mark Rothko, Tate Gallery, London, 1996.
  • Waldman, D.: Mark Rothko 1930 – 1970, Thames & Hudson, London, 1997.
  • Mark Rothko, exhibition catalogue, Paris Musées; Les Amis du Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 1998.
  • Anfam, David: Mark Rothko – the Works on Canvas: A Catalogue Raisonné, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 1998.
  • Weiss, Jeffrey: Mark Rothko, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2000.
  • Baal-Teshuva, Jacob: Mark Rothko, 1903 – 1970. Des tableaux comme des drames, Taschen, Berlin, 2003.