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Millet, Jean Françoisfree

French, 19th century, male.

Born 4 October 1814, in Gruchy, near Gréville (Manche); died 20 January 1875, in Barbizon.

Painter, pastellist, engraver, draughtsman. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Realism (related to).

Barbizon School.

P. Nadar: Jean François Millet, cabinet card, 165×110 mm (Frick Art Reference Library Archives)

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: stamp of sale

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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Jean François MILLET: signature or monogram

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The son of a farmer from Gréville, near Cherbourg, Millet began to draw on the walls of the family home while still a young child. M. Langlois, curator of the Cherbourg municipal museum, advised the family to allow the boy to work at his drawing, and he was subsequently taught by Mouchel, while continuing to carry out his share of work on the farm. He was quickly hailed as a child prodigy, and helped by friends to secure an annual municipal grant of 600 francs, enabling him to study in Paris. Millet left for Paris in 1838, aged 23, and entered the studio of the painter Paul Delaroche; his already firmly fixed views on art surprised Delaroche, provoking violent quarrels between master and pupil. Millet’s ideas were opposed by the entire studio, earning him the nickname L’Homme des bois (‘The man from the woods’). He was nonetheless accepted as a candidate for the Prix de Rome, and although Delaroche was struck by the originality of Millet’s entry, he had already spoken in favour of another candidate. Delaroche advised Millet to continue working, and promised to support his entry for the following year; Millet left the studio nonetheless, and spent long hours in the Louvre studying the works of Le Sueur, Poussin, and Rembrandt, whose artistic vision was, he felt, closer to his own. Millet was an ardent disciple of the artistic theories of Poussin and Goya. His only friend at Delaroche’s studio was a certain Marolle, whose portrait he submitted to the Salon of 1840 (it was rejected, while a portrait of one of his parents, submitted in the same year, was accepted without comment). Millet supported himself by producing pastels in the style of Boucher and Watteau, together with small painted pastiches of 18th-century subjects which he sold for 20 francs each. He also painted five-franc and ten-franc portraits, which he never signed. When his pastiches began to wane in popularity, Millet earned a living as a sign-painter. Disillusioned with Paris, he eventually returned home, where he encountered the doubts of his family and acquaintances. He was nonetheless commissioned, for 300 francs, to paint the portrait of M. Jaurain, the Mayor of Cherbourg, who had died recently aged 66. Millet was given nothing to work from but an earlier portrait, painted when Jaurain was a young man. The town council rejected the finished picture as a poor likeness, but agreed to pay Millet 100 francs for his work. Millet refused the sum, and donated his painting to the town. By now thoroughly disillusioned, Millet’s patrons withdrew their support, and he was forced once again to earn a living painting signs: an inn sign announcing the house’s traditional Normandy cider ( Au vrai cidre normand); a Little Milkmaid for a novelty shop; a Scene from Our Country’s African Campaigns for a travelling showman; a Horse for a veterinary surgeon; a Sailor for a sailing-boat. The signs were sold for 30 francs each, but despite the lowly nature of such commissions, Millet also received 300 francs for an Apotheosis of St Barbara. In 1841, he married a young local girl, Pauline Ono. The couple moved to Paris in 1842, where Mme Millet died on 21 April 1844. Desperate with grief, Millet returned home once again, submitting a painting of a Dairymaid and a pastel of a Riding Lesson to the Paris Salon before he left. The entry was highly praised by the painter Narcisse Diaz – an admirer of the Barbizon painter Théodore Rousseau. Millet remained in Cherbourg for one year, and married his second wife, Catherine Lemaire. During a trip to Le Havre, he earned a significant sum painting a number of portraits and some genre scenes, including Young Boy Bird’s-nesting, Long Vigil, and Woman Asleep over Her Sewing. He also held a highly successful public exhibition of his work. Despite this local success, Millet returned to Paris and embarked on his artistic career proper. His St John Tormented by Women was rejected by the Salon Jury of 1846, despite being much admired by the painter Thomas Couture. In 1847, his Oedipus Unleashed from the Tree sparked a critical furore, and the family suffered further hardship after the Revolution of 1848, when the sale of works of art was banned. However, Millet’s friend Philippe-Auguste Jeanron arranged the sale of The Winnower (now in the Musée d’Orsay) to a prominent fellow-Republican, Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, for 500 francs, and he received 1,800 francs for his painting of Harvesters Resting (Ruth and Boaz). With Paris in the grip of cholera, Millet was advised by Charles Jacque to take his family to the nearby hamlet of Barbizon. Here, he painted The Sower, The Straw-binders (1850, Musée d’Orsay), The Gleaners (1857), and The Angelus (1859), as well as paintings of a Woman Shearing Sheep, Man with a Hoe, Woman Carding Wool, Shepherdess, Goose-girl and The Sheepfold, Moonlight. Millet’s continuing financial problems were compounded by his artistic struggles. Paul de St-Victor referred to him as the ‘painter of the unspeakable’. Conscious of the shocking nature of his vision of human existence, in the eyes of his contemporaries, Millet described his own work as the ‘use of the insignificant to express the sublime’. Théophile Gautier, for his part, had long been aware of Millet’s essential genius, writing that his work expressed ‘a rare nobility and grandeur, which in no way detract from its rustic character’. Van Gogh’s admiration for the synthetic, ‘essential’ quality of Millet’s drawings is well known. Vincent was greatly inspired by Millet’s politically charged subject-matter: the indissoluble links binding the working man to his tools, the peasant to the soil. In 1859, discouraged by the rejection of his painting Death and the Woodcutter at that year’s Salon, Millet briefly contemplated suicide. In 1860, however, he struck an agreement with his friend, the Parisian art dealer Alfred Sensier (Millet had installed his studio on the ground floor of Sensier’s house in Barbizon, in 1849). This ensured him a monthly income of 1,000 francs, for a period of three years; in return, Millet guaranteed to deliver his entire output to Sensier, with the balance payable at the end of the contract. Following this agreement, the collector and dealer Emile Gavet guaranteed Millet a monthly income of 1,000 francs in exchange for drawings and other works on paper, valued at between 250 and 500 francs each. A retrospective of his work held at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867 marked the beginning of Millet’s triumph as an artist of international repute; nine of his most important works were featured, and he was awarded a first-class Jury medal. He was made a Chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur the following year. In 1870, Millet left Paris for Cherbourg, fleeing the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war. Here, he painted The Church at Gréville, now in the Musée d’Orsay. In 1873, he was paid an advance of 50,000 francs by Charles-Philippe Chennevières, Director of the École des Beaux-Arts, to decorate part of the Panthéon in Paris. Millet died before he could begin work on the project, however. Suffering from a chest complaint, he completed three more works – Donkey on a Heath, The Priest’s House at Vieuville, and The Sewing Lesson; he died on 20 January 1875. In 2002, a retrospective of his work was held at the Musée d’Art Roger Quillot in Clermont-Ferrand.

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Amsterdam (Stedelijk Mus.): two works

Baltimore (Walters AM): The Sheepfold, Moonlight (Le Berger au parc, la nuit) (1856–1860, oil/panel)

Berlin: November Evening

Bern: Portrait of M. Wanner, Swiss Consul in Le Havre

Boston (MFA): Shepherdess; Harvesters Resting (Ruth and Boaz) (Le Repas des moissonneurs) (1850–1853, oil on canvas); Noonday Rest; Potato Planters (c. 1861); Summer; The Sower (Le Semeur) (1850, oil on canvas)

Bourg: Woman Watching over a Cow

Cardiff (National Mus. and Gal.): Winter

Cherbourg: Moses; Martyrdom of St Stephen; Portrait of Pauline Ono, the Artist’s First Wife; Self-portrait; The Artist’s Brother-in-law; Mme Millet’s Aunt; Déjeuner sur l’herbe; Allegory of Painting (Putto); The Artist’s Mother-in-law; Shepherdess; Mme Millet’s Grandmother; Portrait of a Man; Young Woman with a Pink Ribbon; Émile Millet; Mme Maréchau; The Artist’s Brother-in-law; The Artist’s First Wife; Portrait; Mme Jayen; Millet; The Cliffs at Landemer: the Grand Castel; Young Girl; Catherine Lemaire; Justice (copy of a work by Le Sueur); Javain, Mayor of Cherbourg; Young Woman; A Farm at Tourps; Study of a Man; Idyll

Copenhagen (Statens Mus. for Kunst): Landscape

Essen (Folkwang Mus.): Flock of Sheep

Frankfurt am Main (Städel): Portrait of Louis Courtois

Glasgow: The Sheepfold; Peasants Walking to Work (Allant travailler)

Hamburg: Narcissus in the Depths of a Forest

Kassel: a pastel; Ideal Landscape

Le Havre: Portrait of Ch. Langevin

Lille: Woman Feeding Her Children

London (NG): The Whisper (c. 1846, oil on canvas); The Winnower (c. 1847–1848, oil on canvas)

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): The Wood Sawyers

Los Angeles (Getty Mus.): Louise-Antoinette Feuardent (Portrait de Louise-Antoinette Feuardent) (1841, oil on canvas); Man with a Hoe (L’Homme à la houe) (1860–1862, oil on canvas)

Lyons: Portrait of a Naval Officer

Marseilles: Motherhood

Montauban: Landscape

Montpellier: Offering to Pan

Moscow (State Tretyakov Gal.): Charcoal Burners

New York (Metropolitan MA): Autumn; Landscape

Otterlo (Kröller-Müller Mus.): Baker’s Wife; The House at Gréville

Paris (Louvre, Chauchard Collection): The Weaner; The Little Shepherdess; Woman Knitting; The Angelus; Woman at a Well; Shepherdess Watching over Her Flock; Woman Spinning; The Sheepfold

Paris (Mus. d’Orsay): Church at Gréville; Mme Lecourtois, the Artist’s Sister-in-law; Woman Sewing; Harvesters Resting (sketch); Portrait of M. Collot; Bathers; Peasant Woman Nursing Her Baby; Spring; The Gleaners; The Stubble Burner; Woman Washing Laundry; The Straw-binders; The Weaner; Motherly Care; Man Splitting Logs

Paris (Mus. du Petit Palais): Portrait de maître

Rheims: a pastel

Rouen: Portrait of a Naval Officer

St Petersburg (Hermitage): Wood-gatherers

Stockholm: The Seashore

The Hague (Mus. Mesdag): Hagar and Ishmael; Old Tower in Barbizon; The Fisherman’s Wife; Still-life; Man and Donkey; Hay-stacks; Grape-picker Resting

Vienna (Österreichische Gal. Belvedere): The Harrow; Winter

Auction Records

Paris, 1849: Love’s Captives, FRF 225

Paris, 1862: Shepherd Gathering his Flock, Evening Light, FRF 3,850

New York, 1866: Woman at a Spinning Wheel, FRF 70,000

Paris, 1872: Moonlight; The Sheepfold, FRF 20,000

Marseilles, 30 April 1874: Autumn, FRF 13,020

Paris, 1875: Threshing Buckwheat; Basse Normandie (pastel) FRF 13,100; Farmyard; Night (pastel) FRF 14,000; Shepherdess Returning with her Flock, Sunset, FRF 11,000; The Sea; View of the Pastures at Gréville, FRF 14,200; Young Shepherdess Seated on a Rock, FRF 13,000

Vienna, 1875: Death and the Woodcutter, FRF 20,000

Paris, 1877: Potato Planters, FRF 32,000

Paris, 1878: The Weaner, FRF 16,605

Paris, 1881: The Grafter, FRF 133,000; The Angelus, FRF 160,000

New York, 1886: Woman Churning Butter, FRF 40,500

Paris, 1888: The Gleaners, FRF 52,000

Paris, 1889: The Angelus, FRF 553,000

Paris, 1890: The Wait, FRF 200,000; Shepherd Watching His Flock (pastel) FRF 29,000

Le Havre, 1891: The Angelus (pastel) FRF 106,000

Paris, 1892: A Sheepfold, FRF 100,000

Paris, 1894: The Harrow, FRF 75,000

Paris, 1897: Woman at a Well (pastel) FRF 27,000

Paris, 1898: The Turkey-Girl, FRF 102,500

Antwerp, 1898: The Water-Carrier, FRF 68,000

New York, Feb 1902: Sheep at Pasture, USD 15,000

New York, 26 Feb 1909: Shearing Sheep, USD 27,500

New York, 15–16 April 1909: Peasants Walking to Work (Allant au travail), USD 50,000

Paris, April 1910: Diana and Her Nymphs, Sleeping, FRF 20,500; Pig-slaughterers, FRF 220,500

London, 30 June 1910: Shepherdess, GBP 1,102

London, 1 July 1910: The Good Samaritan, GBP 997

New York, 13 Feb 1911: Spring; Daphnis and Chloë, USD 5,300

Paris, 4 Dec 1918: The Migration, FRF 65,000

Paris, 3 March 1919: Houses in Barbizon, FRF 52,000

Paris, 16–19 June 1919: Woman Churning Butter, FRF 41,000

Paris, 20 June 1919: The Fisher-boy; Girls Bathing (pastel, a pair) FRF 10,500

Paris, 1–3 Dec 1919: Woman Tilling the Soil (pencil) FRF 5,700

Paris, 6–7 May 1920: Peasants Dragging Kelp up the Beach, FRF 14,700; Portrait of a Man, FRF 7,200

Paris, 14 May 1920: Rainbow (pastel) FRF 40,100; Winter (L’Hiver) (pastel) FRF 55,100

Paris, 27 May 1920: The Little Shepherdess, FRF 29,500; The Sea; View from the Heights of Gréville (pastel) FRF 25,500; Woman Hanging out Washing (watercolour) FRF 30,500

Paris, 30 Nov–2 Dec 1920: Women Washing Laundry (pencil heightened) FRF 32,500; Leaving for Work (pencil) FRF 15,300

Paris, 6 June 1923: The Old Men’s Calendar, FRF 7,800

London, 9 May 1924: Gust of Wind, GBP 1,890

Paris, 27–28 June 1924: Ceres (Demeter), FRF 9,500

Paris, 23 Feb 1925: Portrait of a Man in a Riding-coat, FRF 7,300

Paris, 3 Dec 1925: Portrait of a Man, FRF 9,100

Paris, 27 May 1926: Woman Bathing (charcoal) FRF 24,000

Paris, 20 May 1927: The Weaner (lead pencil) FRF 19,000

London, 10 June 1927: The Last Load, GBP 483; Faun and Sleeping Nymph, GBP 651

Paris, 17–18 June 1927: Returning from the Fields (pencil) FRF 15,000

London, 8 July 1927: The Riding Lesson (pastel) GBP 525

London, 22 July 1927: Women Gathering Wood, GBP 399

Paris, 15 Nov 1928: Standing Peasant with Child (drawing) FRF 20,100; Rider in High Wind (drawing) FRF 17,200

London, 19 April 1929: Cupid Victorious, GBP 651

Paris, 3–4 June 1929: Young Peasant Woman Returning from the Harvest (pastel) FRF 18,000

Paris, 17 May 1930: Woman Washing Laundry (lead pencil) FRF 1,150

London, 13 Nov 1930: On the Heath (pastel) GBP 236

Paris, 14 Dec 1931: Portrait of the Artist’s Son, FRF 10,000

New York, 22 April 1932: Peasant Woman, USD 375

Paris, 2 June 1932: Motherhood (pencil) FRF 2,350; The Spinning Wheel (pencil) FRF 2,420

Paris, 27 April 1933: The Goose-Girl (pastel) FRF 13,500

Paris, 25 May 1933: Portrait of Mme Roumy, FRF 6,400

Paris, 25 Nov 1933: Mlle Virginie Roumy, FRF 8,000; Mlle Catherine Roumy, FRF 7,000

Paris, 23 March 1934: Memory of Franchard (pencil heightened with white) FRF 2,400; Château de Vauville (pen heightened with colour) FRF 3,600; Provender for the Poultry (pencil) FRF 12,500; The Sea from the Cliffs below Gruchy, FRF 8,200; Portrait of Charles F., FRF 5,400; Portrait of Auguste F., FRF 3,500

New York, 17 May 1934: Woman Bleaching Laundry, USD 1,250

New York, 4 Jan 1935: Head of a Small Boy, USD 1,800

Paris, 9 March 1935: Wood-cutter Bundling Sticks, FRF 14,500

London, 12 April 1935: Shepherdess, GBP 241

New York, 7 Nov 1935: Wood-cutters, USD 2,500

Paris, 29 Nov 1935: Child Wearing a Singlet (charcoal and stump heightened with white) FRF 4,200; The Gleaners, FRF 73,100; The Sower (lead pencil) FRF 3,700

Paris, 4 Nov 1937: Dancing Cupids (pastel) FRF 4,100

Paris, 28 Feb 1938: The Church Behind the Trees, FRF 1,430

Paris, 6 March 1940: Labourer (pen) FRF 1,500; St Martin and the Beggar (charcoal) FRF 1,650

Paris, 15 Dec 1941: Winter, FRF 81,000; Summer, FRF 81,000

Paris, 24 April 1942: Drawing, FRF 18,000

Paris, 11 Dec 1942: Portrait of a Friend, FRF 240,000; Two Peasants Returning from the Fields (sepia) FRF 1,100,000

Paris, 4 March 1943: Cold Winds and a Squall at Sea (pencil) FRF 14,000

Paris, 12 March 1943: Hayrick with a Flock of Sheep (lead pencil) FRF 10,800

Paris, 10 Nov 1943: Offering to Pan (charcoal) FRF 4,500

Paris, Oct 1945-July 1946: Female Nude Reclining with Arms Raised (pencil drawing) FRF 21,800; Reclining Female Nude, Seen from the Back (pencil drawing) FRF 23,000

New York, 18 Oct 1945: The Survivor, USD 450

New York, 13 Dec 1945: Lovers During the Harvest, USD 950; Woman Spinning, USD 6,750

New York, 20 Feb 1946: Landscape with Sheep (pastel) USD 1,075

Paris, 18 Nov 1946: Sleeping Peasant Woman (drawing) FRF 15,100

Paris, 31 Jan 1949: St Jerome (red chalk) FRF 22,000

Paris, 17 Feb 1949: Countryside with Peasant Woman (charcoal) FRF 16,000; Farmyard (charcoal) FRF 14,500

Paris, 11 March 1949: Shepherdess and Her Flock (pastel) FRF 36,000

Paris, 29 June 1949: Bunch of Daisies (pastel) FRF 310,000

Paris, 28 Nov 1949: Millet’s Garden in Barbizon (charcoal) FRF 21,000; Thatched Cottages (pen drawing, heightened with pastels and watercolour.) FRF 15,000; The Shepherdess (lead pencil) FRF 8,600

New York, 11 Jan 1950: Birth of a Calf, USD 1,700

Stuttgart, 26 April 1950: Shepherdess and Flock in a Wood (charcoal) DEM 1,300

Paris, 5 Feb 1951: Bathers (pen) FRF 13,100

Paris, 16 Feb 1951: Love’s Chill or Winter (1864) FRF 220,000

Paris, 28 May 1951: Portrait of a Little Boy (pastel) FRF 21,100

New York, 17 Oct 1956: Shepherdess and Her Flock (pastel) USD 3,000

London, 3 Dec 1958: Farmhouse Garden (watercolour) GBP 650

Paris, 18 March 1959: Peasant Woman from the Auvergne Tending Goats (pastel) FRF 500,000

London, 8 July 1959: Landscape, GBP 800

Paris, 4 Nov 1960: Seated Nude, FRF 2,500

London, 23 Nov 1960: Farm, GBP 750

London, 22 March 1961: The Harvester (pencil) GBP 920

New York, 29 Nov 1961: Provender for the Poultry, USD 8,500

New York, 6 Nov 1963: Day’s End, USD 30,000

London, 25 Feb 1966: Landscape with Figures, Gns 6,000

London, 4 Dec 1968: Portrait of M. de Witt (c. 1847) GBP 42,000

Tokyo, 3 Oct 1969: Shepherdess, JPY 7,000,000

London, 15 April 1970: Portrait of a Young Woman, GBP 14,000

New York, 5 May 1971: Le Briquet (pastel) USD 36,000

London, 27 June 1972: The Peasant’s Horse (pastel) Gns 8,500

Geneva, 7 Dec 1973: Knitting, CHF 95,000

New York, 12–13 Nov 1974: Labourer’s Return (c. 1863, oil on panel, 17½ × 24½ ins/44.5 × 62 cm) USD 70,000

New York, 15 Oct 1976: The Labourer’s Return (c. 1863, oil on panel inlaid, 17½ × 24½ ins/44.5 × 62 cm) USD 65,000

New York, 28 April 1977: Monsieur Ouitre (1845, oil on canvas, 39 × 31¾ ins/99 × 80.5 cm) USD 90,000

London, 29 June 1978: The Gleaners (etching/ink, 7½ × 10 ins/19.2 × 25.4 cm) GBP 800

New York, 28 April 1979: Going to Work (Allant au travail) (1863, etching heightened with ink, 15¼ × 12 ins/38.6 × 30.6 cm) USD 5,800

Paris, 4 Dec 1979: Peasant Woman Burning Grass (lead pencil heightened with white chalk, 15¼ × 10¼ ins/39 × 26 cm) FRF 134,000

London, 20 June 1980: The Immaculate Conception (oil on canvas, 30¾ × 17¾ ins/78 × 45 cm) GBP 5,500

New York, 21 Nov 1980: Shepherdess and Her Flock (c. 1865–1868, pastel and charcoal, 15 × 20¼ ins/38.4 × 51.4 cm) USD 270,000

New York, 29 Oct 1981: Peasant Spreading Muck (1851, oil on canvas, 14¾ × 22 ins/37.5 × 56 cm) USD 250, 000

New York, 27 Feb 1982: The Sower (c. 1865, pastel and black chalk/paper, 14¼ × 17 ins/36 × 43 cm) USD 300,000

New York, 4 May 1983: Leaving for Work (Allant au travail) (1863, etching, 15¼ × 12¼ ins/38.5 × 30.8 cm) USD 14,500

New York, 27 May 1983: Woman at the Well (pastel and black chalk, 11¼ × 8¾ ins/28.5 × 22.3 cm) USD 235,000

New York, 15 Nov 1983: Portrait of a Woman (Madame Lefranc) (c. 1841–1842, oil on canvas, 32 × 25½ ins/81 × 64.7 cm) USD 290,000

London, 27 June 1984: Shepherdess Seated on a Rock (charcoal heightened with white chalk, 14¾ × 11 ins/37.5 × 28 cm) GBP 82,000

New York, 24 May 1985: Antoinette Hebert Looking into a Mirror (c. 1844–1845, oil on canvas, 39¾ × 32 ins/101 × 81.3 cm) USD 550,000

New York, 15 Nov 1985: The Gleaners (1855–1856, etching, 7½ × 10 ins/19.1 × 25.6 cm) USD 5,000

New York, 22 May 1986: Shepherdess and Her Flock at the Base of the Windmill at Chailly (1873, oil on canvas, 37 × 46¾ ins/94 × 119 cm) USD 460,000

New York, 24 Feb 1987: Peasant Woman Tending Cattle (c. 1855–1860, pastel/paper, 11¾ × 18 ins/30 × 45.7 cm) USD 290,000

Paris, 16 Dec 1987: Shepherdess (pencil drawing, 6¾ × 9½ ins/17 × 24 cm) FRF 168,000

New York, 25 Feb 1988: The End of the Harvest (soft black chalk and ink heightened with white, 6¼ × 9 ins/16.1 × 22.6 cm) USD 187,000

Paris, 18 March 1988: Labours of the Fields (charcoal drawing, 9 × 11 ins/22 × 28 cm) FRF 166,000

Paris, 18 March 1988: Farmer’s Wife with a Bundle of Sticks (charcoal drawing, heightened with pastel, 9 × 12½ ins/22 × 32 cm) FRF 205,000

Paris, 17 June 1988: The Reaper; Landscape (1 pen drawing, 1 pencil drawing mounted on tracing paper, 4¼ × 7 ins/11 × 18 cm and 4¾ × 4½ ins/12 × 11.5 cm) FRF 14,000

Paris, 22 June 1988: Shepherd (lead pencil, 13 × 9¾ ins/33 × 25 cm) FRF 380,000

Paris, 5 July 1988: Landscape (pen, 4½ × 6½ ins/11.5 × 16.2 cm) FRF 17,000

Heidelberg, 14 Oct 1988: Leaving for Work (Allant au travail) (etching, 15¼ × 12 ins/38.5 × 30.7 cm) DEM 11,400

Paris, 16 Dec 1988: Several Figure Studies (charcoal/canvas) FRF 250,000

Versailles, 5 March 1989: Landscape (ink drawing, 4¼ × 6 ins/10.5 × 15.5 cm) FRF 25,100

Paris, 8 April 1989: Portrait of Mr Postel (pastel, 15¼ × 11¾ ins/38.5 × 30 cm) FRF 1,100,000

New York, 25 Oct 1989: Woodcutter Bundling Sticks (pastel, 19¼ × 13½ ins/49 × 34 cm) USD 825,000

Monaco, 3 Dec 1989: A Norman Dairy-maid (charcoal, 14¼ × 11¼ ins/36 × 28.5 cm) FRF 2,220,000

New York, 22 May 1990: Harvesters Sleeping (oil on canvas, 18 × 15 ins/45.7 × 38.1 cm) USD 770,000

New York, 23 May 1990: Woman Asleep over Her Sewing (1845, oil on canvas, 18 × 15 ins/45.7 × 38 cm) USD 797,500

Paris, 15 June 1990: Woman Shearing Sheep (lead pencil/paper, 13¾ × 10¾ ins/35 × 27.3 cm) FRF 31,000

Monaco, 16 June 1990: Road to a Village, Dusk (oil on card, 6¼ × 8½ ins/16 × 21.8 cm) FRF 610,500

London, 19 June 1990: Farmyard at Gruchy (pencil, 11¾ × 17¼ ins/30 × 44 cm) GBP 46,200

Paris, 19 June 1990: Three Women Washing Laundry (charcoal, 9 × 11¾ ins/22 × 30 cm) FRF 95,000

Rome, 19 Nov 1990: Classical Landscape with Figures (oil on canvas, 37¾ × 50¾ ins/96 × 129 cm) ITL 74,750,000

Monaco, 8 Dec 1990: The Knitting Lesson (perspective study) (charcoal, 13 × 9 ins/33 × 23 cm) FRF 277,500; Young Woman in Blue Seated beside an Angler (oil on canvas, 9 × 13¾ ins/23 × 35 cm) FRF 1,443,000

New York, 28 Feb 1991: Provender for the Poultry (ink and watercolour/paper, 16 × 11 ins/39.7 × 28.2 cm) USD 594,000

Barbizon, 13 Oct 1991: Peasant Woman Wearing a Tall Normandy Headdress (1847, oil on panel, 16½ × 12¾ ins/42 × 32.5 cm) FRF 1,100,000

Paris, 15 May 1992: Mazeppa (lead pencil, black ink, brush, 7¾ × 12¼ ins/20 × 31 cm) FRF 38,000

New York, 28 May 1992: Poplars (oil on panel, 11 × 7¼ ins/27.9 × 18.4 cm) USD 176,000

London, 27 Nov 1992: Peasant Leaning on his Fork (lead pencil /paper, 9¾ × 14½ ins/24.7 × 37.1 cm) GBP 85,800

Lorient, 28 Nov 1992: Young Girl Lying beneath the Trees in a Wood, with a Young Man Playing Pan-pipes in the Distance (wax crayon, 7¾ × 10¼ ins/20 × 26 cm) FRF 149,000

New York, 27 May 1993: Shepherdess Knitting while Tending her Flock (pencil/paper, 12 × 8½ ins/30.5 × 21.5 cm) USD 222 500

Paris, 11 June 1993: Peasants Digging (etching, 8¾ × 12½ ins/22.4 × 32 cm, 2 ins/5 cm) FRF 25,000

Paris, 16 Dec 1993: Shepherd Leaning on His Stick (pen and ink, 14¾ × 9½ ins/37.3 × 24.1 cm) FRF 300,000

Monaco, 20 June 1994: Wooded Landscape with an Avenue of Trees on the Horizon (pencil and ink, 4½ × 6¾ ins/11.5 × 17 cm) FRF 28,860

Paris, 22 June 1994: Noonday Rest (lead pencil heightened with pastels, 10¼ × 15¼ ins/26 × 39 cm) FRF 2,100,000

Lyons, 13 June 1995: Landscape (pen and watercolour, 7 × 9½ ins/18 × 24 cm) FRF 220,000

New York, 1 Nov 1995: Summer, the Gleaners (oil on canvas, 15 × 11½ ins/38.1 × 29.2 cm) USD 3,412,500

London, 15 Nov 1995: Portrait of Guillaume Roumy, Pauline Ono’s Uncle (oil on canvas, 25½ × 21¼ ins/65 × 54 cm) GBP 34,500

New York, 22 May 1996: Woman Carding Wool (oil on canvas) USD 3,412,500

New York, 23–24 May 1996: Leaving for Work (Allant au travail) (pastel and lead pencil/paper, 21½ × 16½ ins/54.3 × 42.2 cm) USD 530,000

London, 12 June 1996: Seated Shepherdess (oil on canvas, 17¾ × 14¾ ins/45 × 37.5 cm) GBP 491,000

Paris, 13 June 1996: La Grande Bergère (1862, etching, 12½ × 9¼ ins/31.7 × 23.6 cm) FRF 33,500

London, 20 Nov 1996: The Barrage (oil on panel, 13¾ × 10½ ins/34.9 × 26.7 cm) GBP 28,750

Paris, 17 Dec 1996: Preparatory Study for the Norman Milkmaid (sanguine (red chalk), 9 × 7 ins/23 × 17.8 cm) FRF 22,500

Paris, 7 March 1997: Stew (1861, etching) FRF 7,000

New York, 13–14 May 1997: Woman Churning Butter (c. 1852–1857, black chalk/paper, 19 × 15¼ ins/48 × 39 cm) USD 305,000

Paris, 10 June 1997: The Gleaners (1855, etching, 7½ × 10 ins/19 × 25.2 cm) FRF 48,000

Paris, 16 Dec 1997: Leaving for Work (Allant au travail) (1863, etching, 15¼ × 12¼ ins/38.5 × 31 cm) FRF 72,000

New York, 6 May 1999: Portrait of M. Troyan (1840s, oil on canvas, 29 × 23 ins/73 × 59 cm) USD 110,000

New York, 3 Nov 1999: Woodcutter in the Forest. Young Woman Taking Linens from a Shelf (red chalk conté crayon on panel, double-sided, 7 × 11 ins/17 × 29 cm) USD 100,000

New York, 3 May 2000: Mother and Child (black crayon and chalk, 13 × 9 ins/33 × 24 cm) USD 90,000

New York, 18 Oct 2000: Woman Carrying Firewood and a Pail (oil on panel, 15 × 12 ins/39 × 30 cm) USD 360,000

New York, 1 May 2001: Portrait of a Man with a Cigar (oil on canvas, 32 × 26 ins/81 × 65 cm) USD 100,000

Paris, 19 Dec 2001: Motherly Care (c. 1862, crayon, 10 × 7 ins/25 × 19 cm) FRF 380,000

New York, 24 April 2002: Portrait of Felix Bienaime Feuardent (oil on canvas, 29 × 24 ins/73 × 61 cm) USD 120,000

New York, 30 Oct 2002: Norman Milkmaid (1853–1854, oil on canvas, 13 × 10 ins/33 × 26 cm) USD 150,000

Paris, 27 March 2003: Portrait of Narcissus Virgil Diaz de la Pena (chalk, 22 × 17 ins/56 × 43 cm) EUR 35,000

Paris, 27 March 2003: Portrait of Victor Dupré (chalk, 24 × 18 ins/60 × 46 cm) EUR 65,000

London, 15 June 2004: Woodcutters Resting (black crayon, 11 × 18 ins/27 × 45 cm) GBP 65,000

London, 6 July 2004: Farm in the Hills of Vichy, possibly Les Malavaux (black chalk, pen, ink and watercolour, 5 × 8 ins/13 × 21 cm) GBP 19,000

London, 15 June 2005: Shepherdess Seated in the Forest (oil on canvas, 18 × 15 ins/45.8 × 38.1 cm) GBP 700,000

New York, 26 Oct 2005: Path through the Chestnut Trees, Cusset (1866, pastel, black crayon, and ink, 17 × 21 ins/43.2 × 53.4 cm) USD 250,000

New York, 25 April 2006: Les petites maraudeuses (pencil and pastel, 19 × 13 ins/48.3 × 33.1 cm) USD 195,000

London, 14 June 2006: Nymphe dans les roseaux (1848, oil on board, 7 × 9 ins/17.8 × 22.9 cm) GBP 40,000

New York, 18 April 2007: Shepherdess and Her Flock (pencil, pen ink, and watercolour, 9 × 13 ins/22.9 × 33.1 cm) USD 230,000

London, 26 June 2007: Méridienne/Midi (1849, oil on panel, 8 × 13 ins/20.4 × 33.1 cm) GBP 320,000

London, 23 Jan 2008: The Sleeping Seamstress (1845, oil on canvas, 18 × 15 ins/45.7 × 38.1 cm) GBP 334,100

New York, 24 Jan 2008: The Knitting Lesson (black chalk heightened with white, 14¼ × 11¾ ins/36 × 29.5 cm) USD 529,000

London, 21 Jan 2009: Seated Nude (charcoal on paper, 16 × 12¼ ins/40.5 × 30.5 cm) GBP 7,500

London, 8 July 2009: A Reclining Female Nude (charcoal and stumping, 8¼ × 11 ins/20.6 × 27.8 cm) GBP 106,850

Paris, 19 April 2010: Femme à la fontaine (charcoal, 11 × 7 ins/27.7 × 17.4 cm) EUR 117,724

New York, 4 Nov 2010: Le grand frère (pastel and crayon on paper, 17 × 22¼ ins/43.1 × 56.1 cm) USD 554,500

New York, 26 Jan 2011: La fin de la journée; effet du soir (oil on canvas, 23½ × 28¾ ins/59.7 × 73 cm) USD 1,538,500

New York, 12 Oct 2011: Portrait of Madame Martin (1840, oil on canvas, 18½ × 15 ins/46.4 × 38.1 cm) USD 230,500

New York, 4 May 2012: Paysanne conduisant aux champs sa vache et ses moutons (pastel and crayon noir on paper, 16 × 11½ ins/40.5 × 29.2 cm) USD 266,500

London, 12 June 2012: Hagar and Ishmael (oil on panel, 6¾ × 10 ins/17 × 25.4 cm) GBP 44,450

Paris, 10 Apr 2013: Paysan répandant du fumier (charcoal and blending stump, 14 × 12¼ ins/35 × 30.5 cm) EUR 87,900

New York, 5 Nov 2013: Ferme sur les hauteurs de Vichy, probablement Les Malavaux (black chalk, pen and brown ink, watercolour, heightened with white on brown paper, 5¼ × 8¼ ins/13 × 20.5 cm) USD 52,500

New York, 28 Apr 2014: Woodcutter in the Forest and Young Woman Taking Linens from a Shelf: A Double-sided Work (oil on panel; on the verso, sanguine conté crayon, 6¾ × 11¼ ins/16.8 × 28.5 cm) USD 365,000

New York, 27 Oct 2014: L’horizon (La Plaine) (pastel and crayon noire over pencil on paper laid down on board, 19¾ × 24½ ins/50.1 × 62.2 cm) USD 1,985,000

Bibliography

  • Sensier, Alfred: La Vie et l’Œuvre de J.-F. Millet, A. Quantin, Paris, 1881.
  • Cartwright, Julia: Jean-François Millet: His Life and Letters, London, 1910.
  • Moreau-Nélaton, Étienne: Millet raconté par lui-même, H. Laurens, Paris, 1921.
  • Lepoittevin, Lucien: Jean-François Millet, Librairie Léonce Laget, Paris, 1971.
  • Herbert, Robert: Jean-François Millet, Paris, 1975.
  • Herbert, Robert: Jean-François Millet, exhibition catalogue, London, 1975.
  • Pollock, Griselda: Millet, London, 1977.
  • Millet, van Gogh, exhibition catalogue, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, 1999.
  • Murphy, Alexandra R.: Jean-François Millet: Drawn into the Light, exhibition catalogue, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1999.
  • Gros, Dominique: La Hague de Jean-François Millet, Imprimerie nationale, Paris, 2001.
  • Jean-François Millet: voyage en Auvergne et Bourbonnais, 1866–1868, Skira, Milan, 2002.
  • Lepoittevin, Lucien/Lacambre, Geneviève: Jean-François Millet, J.-P. de Monza, Paris, 2002.
  • Manoeuvre, Laurent: Jean-François Millet Pastels and Drawings, London, 2004.