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Cassatt, Mary or Mary Stevensonfree

American, 19th–20th century, female.

Active in France.

Born 22 May 1844, in Allegheny, near Pittsburgh; died 14 June 1926, in Beaufresne Château, Mesnil-Théribus, France.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, draughtswoman. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

Mary Cassatt, photograph, 170×197 mm, 1913 (Frick Art Reference Library Archives)

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CASSATT, Mary: signature or monogram (Copyright www.ArtistsSignatures.com)

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CASSATT, Mary: signature or monogram (Copyright www.ArtistsSignatures.com)

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Mary CASSATT: signature or monogram

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Mary CASSATT: signature or monogram

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In 1851, Mary Cassatt went to Europe with her parents and remained there for five years. After studying in Philadelphia from 1861 to 1865 she returned to Europe. She visited Parma, where she studied the work of Antonio da Correggio; Spain, where she studied the work of Diego Velázquez; Antwerp; and Holland, where she studied the work of Peter Paul Rubens and Frans Hals. In Parma she studied for eight months under Carlo Raimondi before moving to Paris where, in 1872, she worked at the studio of J. Chaplin. Cassatt also studied under Gérome. She felt an immediate attraction for the Impressionists and was particularly struck by a pastel by Edgar Degas she had seen in a shop window and which became something of an obsession with her. In her words: ‘I used to go and press my face against the glass to absorb as much as I could of his art. It transformed my life. From that moment onwards I saw art in the way I wanted to see it’. Soon after her arrival in Paris she exhibited On the Balcony at the Paris Salon and in 1874 her Portrait of Ida, which caught Degas’ attention. Cassatt and Degas soon became friends and he gave her advice and introduced her to the Impressionists. Cassatt was influenced by Japanese art and also by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, whose qualities as a luminist she sought to emulate. In 1877 Degas invited her to exhibit at the Salon des Impressionistes and she continued to do so regularly until 1882 when, following Degas’ example, she refused to exhibit there.

In 1893 the Durand-Ruel gallery organised an exhibition of her work, the profits of which enabled her to buy the Château de Beaufresne in the Loire Valley, where she lived until her death. During her lifetime Cassatt had relatively little success in either New York or Paris. Only Degas really appreciated her work, telling her that a woman had no right to draw as well as she did. Her brother Alexander was an art dealer and she knew many American art sponsors and helped introduce Impressionism to the USA. In her later years she helped American friends purchase contemporary French paintings and also helped establish the Metropolitan Museum collection in New York. Cassatt became blind in 1914 and was forced to abandon painting.

In her early career Cassatt’s work was often a synthesis of styles as different as those of Degas, Renoir, and Édouard Manet. Little Girl in a Blue Armchair (1878) is one of the most striking examples of her adoption of Degas’ layout, the luminous technique of Renoir and, with the flat tints in the girl’s portrait, the influence of Manet. Although she painted, Cassatt showed a preference for pastel, engraving, and aquatint, which required strenuous work. Engraving and then etching were well suited to what she wished to achieve and to her admiration for Degas. She began to work in large, flat surfaces enclosed by strong lines. To this firm and vigorous draughtsmanship, ‘she added’ (in the words of J. Rewald) ‘a blend of emotion and cold vivacity that were entirely her own’. Her enthusiasm for the Japanese exhibition she visited with Degas in Paris in 1890 is not surprising.

From this period onward her interest in engraving led to her assembling a collection of prints, almost exclusively by Utamaro. Cassatt herself produced engravings but used a different technique to that of the Japanese: instead of wooden plates she used metal ones. The most significant example of her Japanese-inspired style is an engraving entitled The Toilet in which she uses a low viewpoint and flat, outlined colours. However, the importance of the Japanese influence on her work should not be exaggerated: as early as 1883 she had already painted Lady at the Tea Table, which also shows an apparently Japanese influence. In fact, Cassatt’s approach not only corresponded with the aesthetic characteristics of Japanese engravings, but also with the style of Degas. Later she felt a natural attraction for these two approaches that contributed to her own style. Cassatt’s choice of colour was very different from that of the Japanese; it remained feminine, using pinks and blues, but never black. Her choice of subject, often children, was also feminine: she produced a series of 10 colour engravings on the theme of Motherhood. She never tackled landscape for its own sake.

Group Exhibitions

1903, Exposition d’œuvres de l’école impressioniste, Bernheim-Jeune, Paris

1936, Paintings by Sisley, Renoir, Pissarro, Monet, Boudin, and Cassatt, Leicester Gallery, London

1937, Leaders of American Impressionism: Mary Cassatt, Childe Hassam, John H. Twachtman, J. Alden Weir, Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York

1941, Prints by Mary Cassatt and Her French Contemporaries, Cincinnati Museum of Art

1989, 200 Years of American Painting. The Wadsworth Atheneum Collection (200 Ans de Peinture Américaine. Collection du Wadsworth Atheneum), Galeries Lafayette, Paris

1999, Town and Country: American Artists, 1870–1920 (Ville et Campagne: les Artistes Américains, 1870–1920), Musée d’Art Américain, Giverny

2002, Women of Montparnasse (Elles de Montparnasse), Musée du Montparnasse, Paris (an exhibition exploring the emancipation of female artists in the inter-war period)

2002, American Impressionism 1880–1915 (L’Impressionisme Américain 1880–1915), Fondation de l’Hermitage, Lausanne (focusing on American artists who had studied or lived in Paris at the turn of the 20th century)

2002, Japonisme in America: Works on Paper, 1880–1930 (Le Japonisme en Amérique: œuvres sur papier, 1880–1930), Musée d’Art Américain/Terra Foundation for the Arts, Giverny

2006, Americans in Paris 1860–1900, National Gallery, London (also presented at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

2007, Art in the USA: 300 Years of Innovation, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

2008, Portrait of a Lady: Paintings and Photographs of American Women in France 1870–1915, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux

2012–2013, Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, Musee d’Orsay, Paris; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Art Institute of Chicago

Solo Exhibitions

1893, Durand-Ruel, Paris (retrospective)

1924, Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York

1936, Baltimore Museum of Art

1960, 1985, Philadelphia Museum of Art

1965, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia

1967, The Graphic Art of Mary Cassatt, Cincinnati Art Museum; Cooper Union Museum, New York; Detroit Institute of the Arts

1970, Mary Cassatt, 1844–1926, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

1981, The Art of Mary Cassatt, Isetan Museum of Art, Tokyo; Nara Prefectural Museum

1996, Mary Cassatt at a Glance, Musée d’Art Américain, Giverny

1998, Mary Cassatt, Modern Woman, Art Institute of Chicago; Museum of Fine Art, Boston; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC (retrospective)

2004, Art in a Mirror: The Counterproofs of Mary Cassatt, Adelson Gallery, New York

2005, Mary Cassatt, Impressions, Musée d’Art Américain, Giverny

2006, Mary Cassatt: Prints, National Gallery, London (from the collection of the National Gallery of Canada)

2013, Daring Methods: The Prints of Mary Cassatt, New York Public Library

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Baltimore (Peabody Art Collection): Young Woman in Black (Portrait of Madame J.) (1883, oil on canvas)

Bilbao (MBA): Woman Holding a Child in Her Arms (c. 1890, oil on canvas)

Bordeaux (MBA): Portrait of a Little Girl, also known as The Lace Dress (1879);Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1901)

Boston (MFA): In the Loge (1878, oil on canvas);The Tea (c. 1880, oil on canvas)

Chicago (Terra Foundation for American Art Collection): Jenny and Her Sleepy Child (c. 1891, oil on canvas);Summertime (c. 1894, oil on canvas);La Tasse de thé (1897, pastel on tan wove paper, mounted on canvas);large collection of prints

Chicago (AI): On a Balcony (1878–1879, oil on canvas);Young Mother (1888, pastel on paper mounted on canvas);The Child’s Bath (1893, oil on canvas)

Cleveland (MA): After the Bath (c. 1901, pastel/paper)

Hartford (Wadsworth Atheneum): Child Holding a Dog (c. 1908, pastel/paper)

New York (Metropolitan MA): Portrait of the Artist (1878, gouache on wove paper laid down to buff-coloured wood-pulp paper);Lydia Crocheting in the Garden at Marly (1880, oil on canvas);The Cup of Tea (c. 1880–1881, oil on canvas)

Ottawa (Nat. Gal. of Canada): large collection of prints

Paris (Petit Palais)

Philadelphia (MA): Woman with a Pearl Necklace in a Loge (1879, oil on canvas);A Woman and a Girl Driving (1881, oil on canvas);Portrait of Alexander J. Cassatt and His Son, Robert Kelso Cassatt (1884, oil on canvas); Family Group Reading (c. 1901, oil on canvas)

Philadelphia (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts Gal.): Young Thomas and His Mother (1893, pastel on cardboard)

Portland, ME (MA): Anne and Her Nurse (or Sketch of Anne and Her Nurse) (c. 1897)

Richmond (Virginia MFA): Baby Reaching for an Apple (1893, oil on canvas)

Washington, DC (NGA): Little Girl in a Blue Armchair (1878, oil on canvas);The Loge (1882, oil on canvas);Children Playing on the Beach (1884, oil on canvas);The Boating Party (1893–1894, oil on canvas);Mother and Child (c. 1905, oil on canvas)

Wichita (AM): Mother and Child (c. 1889, oil on canvas)

Auction Records

Paris, 1881: Head of a Child (pastel) FRF 280

Paris, 29 April 1899: Lady with Fan, FRF 1,900

Paris, 30 June 1900: Woman Reading in a Flower Garden, FRF 1,200

Paris, 29 Nov 1901: In the Garden, FRF 820

Paris, 4 March 1907: Motherhood, FRF 1,300;Portrait of Marcelin Desboutin, FRF 1,300

Paris, 16 June 1908: Young Girl, FRF 410

Paris, 6 Dec 1909: Young Girl with a Wide-Brimmed Green Hat, FRF 1,300

Paris, 5–16 Nov 1918: Young Woman by a Window (pen) FRF 450

Paris, 27 Feb 1919: Maternal Tenderness (pencil) FRF 200

Paris, 13–14 March 1919: Maternal Cares (pastel) FRF 15,000

Paris, 22 May 1919: Mother and Child (pastel) FRF 5,000

Paris, 20–22 May 1920: Child Sucking Its Thumb (pastel) FRF 10,500;Young Woman Sitting, Hugging Her Child against her Chest (watercolour) FRF 780

Paris, 2–4 June 1920: Young Girl with a Blue Hat (pastel) FRF 7,100

Paris, 24 Feb 1922: Maternal Tenderness (pencil) FRF 1,100

Paris, 7 Dec 1922: The Nanny, FRF 18,000

New York, 30–31 Dec 1922: Woman with Fan (Clarissa Turned Right, with Her Hand to Her Ear) (c. 1895, pastel, 25¾ × 20¼ ins/65.7 × 51.7 cm) USD 1,800

Paris, 11–13 June 1923: Woman Sitting in an Armchair Reading (charcoal) FRF 620

Paris, 28 June 1923: Woman and Child (watercolour) FRF 800

Paris, 6 Nov 1924: Young Girls (pastel) FRF 35,000;Woman and Child (pastel) FRF 18,500

Paris, 18 May 1925: Young Woman Sewing, FRF 20,500

Paris, 16 June 1926: Blond Child, FRF 50,000

Paris, 3 June 1927: Young Mother and Her Child (pastel) FRF 28,800

Paris, 29 Oct 1927: Presle Church, FRF 1,550

Paris, 17 March 1928: With the Family (pastel) FRF 93,000

Paris, 9 June 1928: Motherhood

Paris, 18–19 June 1928: Young Mother and Little Girl (pastel) FRF 78,000

Paris, 28 Nov 1928: Bust View of a Young Woman (pastel) FRF 34,600

Paris, 20 March 1929: Three-Quarter Study of a Woman Looking Leftwards, FRF 10,000

Paris, 23 March 1929: Woman with a Child in Her Arms (drawing) FRF 250

Paris, 27 April 1929: Little Girl with Dog (pastel) FRF 74,000

New York, 10 April 1930: Woman with Sunflower, USD 8,500;The Family, USD 5,500;Self-portrait (gouache) USD 4,300;Young Mother with a Little Girl and Young Boy (pastel) USD 1,800

Paris, 27 March 1931: Mask of a Man with Blue Eyes and Ginger Moustache (pastel) FRF 1,120

Paris, 20–21 April 1932: The Green Hat (watercolour) FRF 600

Paris, 1 June 1932: Mother and Baby (pastel) FRF 330

Paris, 17 Nov 1932: Child (pastel) FRF 2,850;Mother and Child (pastel) FRF 20,250

Paris, 10 March 1933: Young Mother and Her Daughter (watercolour) FRF 4,100

Paris, 21 March 1934: Study of a Child (charcoal drawing/tinted paper) FRF 310

Paris, 7 June 1935: The Happy Mother, FRF 21,000

New York, 6 May 1937: Woman with Brown Hair (pastel) USD 160

Paris, 6–7 April 1938: Head of a Child (charcoal) FRF 150;Head of a Child (drawing/canvas) FRF 160

Paris, 17 June 1938: Little Girl (pastel) FRF 20,000;Blond Child (pastel) FRF 60,000;The Young Mother (pastel) FRF 61,000

Paris, 24 Nov 1941: Little Girl (watercolour) FRF 10,000;Woman Dreaming (watercolour) FRF 13,800;Little Girl Praying (watercolour) FRF 20,000

Paris, 15 Dec 1941: Mother and Young Girl (pastel) FRF 25,000

Paris, 19 March 1942: Mother and Child (drawing) FRF 2,600;Green Dress with Fan;Mother and Child, FRF 37,000

Paris, 22 Feb 1943: Mother and Child (watercolour) FRF 32,500

Paris, 4 March 1943: Seated Female Nude, FRF 43,000

New York, 1–4 Dec 1943: Young Woman Feeding Her Child, USD 5,000

New York, 9–11 March 1944: Young Woman Holding a Child on Her Lap, USD 1,300;Baby in a Hat (pastel) USD 2,000;Young Girl Leaning on Her Elbows (pastel) USD 1,500

New York, 17 Jan 1945: Mother and Child (pastel) USD 900

New York, 24 Jan 1946: Mother and Child, USD 7,500

New York, 1 May 1946: Young Woman Feeding Her Child, USD 3,000

Paris, 1 April 1949: Portrait of a Young Woman, FRF 320,000

Paris, 19 April 1950: Resting on the Grass (gouache/canvas) FRF 406,000

Paris, 1–2 April 1954: La Jeune Femme à la Toque, FRF 800,000

Paris, 11 June 1958: Woman and Child (watercolour) FRF 30,000;Little Girl with a Yellow Hat, FRF 870,000

Paris, 16 Dec 1958: Profile Portrait of a Woman (pastel) FRF 1,750,000

New York, 15 April 1959: Alexander Cassatt and His Son, Robert Celso Cassatt, USD 39,000

Paris, 16 June 1959: Woman at her Toilette, FRF 4,700,000

Paris, 10 Dec 1959: Young Woman Knitting (pastel) FRF 9,000,000

New York, 16 March 1960: Portrait of a Young Woman (pastel) USD 3,250

London, 6 July 1960: Young Girl with a Green Hat, GBP 7,500

Paris, 5 Dec 1960: Young Woman Sitting, FRF 70,000

New York, 25 Jan 1961: Woman and Child (pastel) USD 30,000

London, 4 July 1962: Woman Sitting, Dressed in White, GBP 9,000

Paris, 10 Dec 1962: The Two Sisters (pastel) FRF 106,000

London, 1 Dec 1965: Mother and Child, GBP 14,000

London, 24 June 1966: Woman Holding a Little Girl on Her Lap, GBP 17,000

New York, 20 Oct 1966: Young Woman with a Blue Blouse and Little Girl with a Red Dress (pastel) USD 27,000

New York, 26 Oct 1967: Young Girl with a White Hat, USD 32,500

New York, 3 April 1968: Motherhood (pastel) USD 84,000

New York, 15 Oct 1969: Mother and Child (Reine Lefèvre and Margot) (pastel/maroon paper remounted/canvas) USD 140,000

London, 1 July 1970: Young Woman Holding a Little Girl on Her Lap, GBP 24,500

New York, 28 Oct 1970: Young Girl Reading (pastel) USD 40,000

New York, 10 March 1971: Young Girl and Little Girl in a Boat, USD 150,000

Paris, 17 March 1971: Young Girl with Dog (pastel) FRF 245,000

London, 27 June 1972: Hélène de Septeuil with Parrot, Gns 12,000

Los Angeles, 20 Nov 1972: Jules after Bathing, USD 35,000

London, 6 Oct 1976: The Toilet (1891, dry-point and aquatint, 14¼ × 10½ ins/36.2 × 26.8 cm) GBP 5,000

New York, 14 Dec 1976: Portrait of a Young Girl (c. 1875, oil on canvas, 16½ × 13½ ins/42 × 34.3 cm) USD 10,000

London, 30 March 1977: Study of a Young Woman Picking Fruit (oil on canvas, 23½ × 28¾ ins/60 × 73 cm) GBP 7,000

New York, 12 May 1977: Portrait of Reine with Outline of a Child’s Head (c. 1902, pastel, 21½ × 18 ins/54.5 × 45.7 cm) USD 7,250

London, 4 Oct 1977: Maternal Caress (1891, etching, dry-point and etched aquatint, 14½ × 10½ ins/36.8 × 26.8 cm) GBP 9,800

Bern, 7 June 1978: Jeannette in a Floppy Bonnet Leaning against a Chair (c. 1904, dry-point) CHF 3,300

Paris, 9 June 1978: Mother and Child (watercolour, 16¼ × 11½ ins/41.5 × 29.5 cm) FRF 52,100

London, 8 Feb 1979: Mother and Child (dry-point, 8¼ × 5¾ ins/20.9 × 14.9 cm) GBP 400

New York, 9 June 1979: Portrait of Katherine Kelso Cassatt (c. 1905, pencil, 9½ × 6¼ ins/24.1 × 15.9 cm) USD 7,000

New York, 24 Oct 1979: Mother and Child (pastel, 26¾ × 20 ins/68 × 51 cm) USD 20,000

New York, 9 Nov 1979: Child in Pink (c. 1870, oil on canvas, 24¼ × 20 ins/61.6 × 51.1 cm) USD 16,000

New York, 19 May 1981: Woman with Fan (Clarissa Turned Right, with Her Hand to Her Ear) (c. 1895, pastel, 25¾ × 20¼ ins/65.7 × 51.7 cm) USD 280, 000

Paris, 17 March 1983: Woman and Child (drawing in watercolour, 10¼ × 8 ins/26 × 20.5 cm) FRF 30,000

New York, 4 May 1983: The Bare-Footed Child (c. 1898, dry-point and aquatint in colour, 10 × 12½ ins/24.5 × 31.5 cm) USD 15,000

New York, 17 May 1983: The Artist’s Mother Reading Le Figaro (c. 1883, oil on canvas, 39¾ × 32 ins/101 × 81.3 cm) USD 1,000,000

New York, 1 June 1984: The Conversation (c. 1896, pastel/mounted paper/canvas, 25½ × 32 ins/64.6 × 81.2 cm) USD 450,000

New York, 5 Dec 1985: Bathing the Young Heir (c. 1891, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 23½ ins/73 × 59.7 cm) USD 240,000

London, 2 Dec 1986: Louise Feeding Her Baby (1899, pastel, 28½ × 21 ins/72.4 × 53.4 cm) GBP 900,000

New York, 29 April 1988: Study for a Young Woman with a Small Hat Holding a Cat (watercolour/paper, 18½ × 12¾ ins/47 × 32.3 cm) USD 29,700

New York, 11 May 1988: The Conversation (pastel/mounted paper/canvas, 25½ × 32 ins/64.6 × 81.2 cm) USD 4,510,000

Paris, 14 June 1988: Three-Quarter View of a Woman’s Head (drawing, 8¼ × 5¼ ins/21 × 13.5 cm) FRF 36,000

London, 28 June 1988: Agnès (oil on canvas, 21½ × 18½ ins/54.5 × 47 cm) GBP 77,000

Paris, 19 Oct 1988: Head of Françoise, Turned Slightly to the Left (1908, watercolour/paper, 13¼ × 9¼ ins/33.5 × 23.5 cm) FRF 12,500

Amsterdam, 8 Dec 1988: Study of a Little Girl (1888, pencil/paper, 12 × 9 ins/30.5 × 23 cm) NLG 24,150

New York, 9 May 1989: Augusta Reading to Her Daughter (1910, oil on canvas, 46 × 35 ins/116 × 89 cm) USD 3,080,000

New York, 10 May 1989: Mother, Sara and the Baby (pastel/paper mounted on paper, 36 × 29½ ins/91.5 × 75 cm) USD 3,850,000

Paris, 17 June 1989: Head of a Little Girl with a Bonnet (1901, oil on canvas, 16½ × 13½ ins/42 × 34 cm) FRF 1,900,000

New York, 18 Oct 1989: Woman Sewing by a Window with Her Dog (oil, gouache and pastel/paper, 24 × 16¼ ins/61 × 41.2 cm) USD 797,500

New York, 14 Nov 1989: Jules Standing by His Mother (oil on canvas, 25¼ ins/64 cm, 2 × 23¼ ins/5 × 59 cm, 1¼ ins/3 cm) USD 1,650,000

New York, 15 Nov 1989: Two Young Girls, One Threading a Needle (1881, oil on canvas, 24¼ × 17 ins/61.5 × 43 cm) USD 1,320,000

Paris, 21 Nov 1989: Simone Sitting, Wearing a Feathered Hat and Holding a Griffon Dog (c. 1903, pastel, 25½ × 21 ins/64.5 × 53.5 cm) FRF 2,000,000

London, 3 April 1990: Head of a Young Girl, Green Background (watercolour, 13¼ × 19 ins/33.7 × 48.2 cm) GBP 33,000

New York, 16 May 1990: Child at the Breast (pastel and black chalk/tinted paper/card, 22¼ × 18 ins/56.2 × 44.8 cm) USD 121,000

New York, 23 May 1990: Sara with a Bonnet Decorated with a Plum on the Left (pastel and white Indian ink/grey paper, 23¾ × 17¾ ins/60.5 × 45 cm) USD 220,000

Paris, 22 June 1990: Little Girl and Her Dog (watercolour and gouache, 22 × 14¾ ins/56 × 37.5 cm) FRF 2,300,000

New York, 7 May 1991: Study for Sarah with a Green Bonnet (pastel/material, 24¾ × 13¼ ins/62.8 × 33.4 cm) USD 220,000

New York, 23 May 1991: Mother Kissing Her Child (pastel/paper, 23½ × 19½ ins/59.7 × 49.5 cm) USD 231,000

London, 25 June 1991: Simone with a Feathered Hat (pastel/rough paper, 24 × 19¾ ins/61 × 50 cm) GBP 93,500

New York, 5 Nov 1991: Elsie Cassatt with a Large Dog on Her Lap (pastel/paper/card, 25¼ × 20½ ins/64.2 × 52.1 cm) USD 1,540,000

Paris, 10 April 1992: Woman and Child in the Grass (1898, dry-point and aquatint) FRF 175,000

New York, 13 May 1992: The Croquet Lesson (1913, pastel/paper/canvas, 30 × 25¼ ins/75.9 × 64.1 cm) USD 935,000

Munich, 26 May 1992: Mother and Child Standing in Front of a Mirror (dry-point, 8¼ × 6 ins/21 × 15 cm) DEM 1,495

New York, 10 Nov 1992: Young Woman in a Box Looking to the Right (pastel and gouache/paper, 25½ × 21½ ins/64.8 × 54.6 cm) USD 2,530,000

New York, 27 May 1993: Mother and Child Looking at a Picture Book No. 1 (pastel/paper, 14 × 19 ins/35.6 × 48.3 cm) USD 90,500

Paris, 16 June 1993: Portrait of a Child (oil on canvas/card, 9½ × 9¼ ins/24 × 23.5 cm) FRF 250,000

London, 22 June 1993: Portrait of Marie-Louise Durand-Ruel (1911, pastel/paper, 29½ × 24¾ ins/75 × 63 cm) GBP 100,500

New York, 2 Nov 1993: Woman with a Black Hat and a Raspberry Red Outfit (pastel/buff-coloured paper, 31½ × 25¾ ins/80 × 65.5 cm) USD 1,542,500

New York, 3 Nov 1993: Mother and Child (pastel/buff-coloured paper, 28¾ × 23½ ins/73 × 59.7 cm) USD 1,102,500

Paris, 18 Nov 1994: Sarah with Her Bonnet and Coat (lithograph, 19¾ × 16¼ ins/50 × 41.5 cm) FRF 38,000

New York, 1 Dec 1994: Baby Sleeping (pastel/paper, 24¾ × 18¾ ins/62.9 × 47.6 cm) USD 222,500

London, 14 March 1995: La Belle Martiniquaise (pencil, 7 × 6 ins/18 × 15 cm) GBP 4,830

Paris, 19 March 1996: Sara and Her Mother with the Baby (pastel/paper, 28¼ × 36¼ ins/72 × 92 cm) FRF 4,600,000

New York, 30 April 1996: Mother, Sara and the Baby (pastel/paper/panel, 36 × 29½ ins/91.5 × 75 cm) USD 1,432,500

New York, 23 May 1996: In the Box (oil on canvas, 17¼ × 24½ ins/43.8 × 62.2 cm) USD 4,072,500

New York, 2 Oct 1996: Sarah with Her Bonnet and Coat (c. 1904, lithograph, 19¾ × 16¼ ins/50 × 41.5 cm) USD 43,000

New York, 9 Oct 1996: Woman with Her Child on Her Lap (watercolour/paper, 17¼ × 11½ ins/43.8 × 28.9 cm) USD 9,200

New York, 5 June 1997: Mother and Nude Child (pastel/paper, 25¼ × 21 ins/64.1 × 53.3 cm) USD 992,500;Marie-Thérèse Gaillard (1894, pastel/paper, 20 × 21¼ ins/51 × 54 cm) USD 1,542,500

New York, 6 June 1997: Mrs Currey;Mr Cassatt (1871, oil on canvas, two sketches, 32¼ × 27 ins/81.9 × 68.6 cm) USD 211,500

New York, 6 and 7 March 1998: Woman Posing with Her Right Hand Behind Her Head (c. 1910, dry-point, 12 × 9¼ ins/30.7 × 23.8 cm) USD 2,587

New York, 11 Nov 1999: Jules Standing by his Mother (c. 1901, oil on canvas, 25 × 23 ins/64 × 59 cm) USD 2,100,000

New York, 30 Nov 1999: Two Young Girls with a Child (oil on canvas, 22 × 26 ins/55 × 65 cm) USD 900,000

New York, 9 Nov 2000: En Bateau, le Bain (c. 1908, oil on canvas, 32 × 26 ins/81 × 65 cm) USD 1,800,000

New York, 29 Nov 2000: Katharine Kelso Cassatt (oil on canvas, 39 × 26 ins/100 × 66 cm) USD 2,700,000

New York, 23 May 2001: Head of Sara in a Bonnet (pastel, 18 × 15 ins/46 × 38 cm) USD 675,000

New York, 23 May 2001: Ellen Mary Cassatt with a Large Bow in Her Hair (oil on canvas, 16 × 13 ins/41 × 33 cm) USD 850,000

New York, 5 Nov 2002: Motherhood (c. 1906, oil on canvas, 32 × 26 ins/81 × 65 cm) USD 1,800,000

New York, 5 Dec 2002: Sara Seated, Leaning on Her Left Hand (oil on canvas, 29 × 22 ins/73 × 55 cm) USD 1,500,000

New York, 6 May 2003: Reine Lefebvre with Blond Baby and Sara Holding Cat (pastel on paper laid on board, 32 × 26 ins/81 × 65 cm) USD 1,200,000

New York, 6 Nov 2003: Head of a Woman with Large Hat (c. 1909, pastel on paper laid on canvas, 28 × 24 ins/72 × 60 cm) USD 260,000

New York, 18 May 2004: Head of a Baby (c. 1898, pastel on paper laid on canvas, 14 × 12 ins/36 × 30 cm) USD 50,000

New York, 18 May 2005: Little Girl in a Stiff, Round Hat in a Sunny Garden (oil on canvas, 15 × 18 ins/38.1 × 45.8 cm) USD 1,100,000;Head of Simone in a Green Bonnet with Wavy Brim (pastel on paper, 16 × 15 ins/40.7 × 38.1 cm) USD 250,000;Margot in a Ruffled Bonnet (pencil on paper, 7 × 6 ins/17.8 × 15.3 cm) USD 20,000

New York, 1 Dec 2005: Mother and Child (watercolour and pencil on paper, 13 × 9 ins/33.1 × 22.9 cm) USD 150,000;Mother and Two Children (oil on canvas, 29 × 36 ins/73.7 × 91.5 cm) USD 3,800,000

New York, 29 Nov 2006: Children Playing with Cat (1908, oil on canvas, 32 × 39 ins/81.3 × 99.1 cm) USD 3,000,000;Mother Louise Holding Up Her Blue-eyed Child (pastel on paper, 28 × 21 ins/71.2 × 53.4 cm) USD 500,000

New York, 30 Nov 2006: Antoinette Holding Her Child by Both Hands (oil on canvas, 29 × 24 ins/73.7 × 61 cm) USD 3,100,000;Portrait of a Child (watercolour on paper, 13 × 10 ins/33.1 × 25.4 cm) USD 32,000

New York, 24 May 2007: Sketch for Sara Feeding Her Dog (pastel on paper laid on board, 21 × 16 ins/53.4 × 40.7 cm) USD 65,000;Children Playing with a Dog (1907, oil on canvas, 39 × 29 ins/99.1 × 73.7 cm) USD 5,500,000

Hayden, 28 July 2007: Baby Bill Standing on His Mother’s Lap (pastel on linen, 32 × 23 ins/81.3 × 58.5 cm) USD 700,000;Portrait of the Artist’s Mother (soft-ground etching and aquatint print, 10 × 7 ins/25.4 × 17.8 cm) USD 10,000

New York, 21 May 2008: Woman Wearing Bonnet (oil on canvas laid down on board, 17¼ × 10¼ ins/43.2 × 26 cm) USD 337,000

New York, 22 May 2008: Margot in a Big Hat (pastel on paper, 18½ × 13¼ ins/46.4 × 33.6 cm) USD 121,000;Head of a Woman with Large Hat (pastel on tan paper, 28½ × 22¼ ins/72.4 × 55.9 cm) USD 265,000

New York, 20 May 2009: Two Mothers and a Child in a Boat (watercolour on paper, 13½ × 19¼ ins/33.7 × 48.9 cm) USD 25,000

New York, 2 Dec 2009: Françoise Wearing a Big White Hat (oil on canvas, 24½ × 20 ins/62.2 × 50.2 cm) USD 842,500;Study for ‘Young Mother Sewing’ (1902, pastel on paper, 36½ × 28½ ins/92.7 × 72.4 cm) USD 2,434,500

New York, 19 May 2010: Mother and Child (Nude Dark-Eyed Little Girl with Mother in Patterned Wrapper) (pastel on paper, 26½ × 22¾ ins/67.3 × 57.2 cm) USD 902,500

New York, 3 Nov 2010: Mother in Purple Holding her Child (pastel on buff paper laid down on board, 28½ × 22¼ ins/71.8 × 56.5 cm) USD 602,500

London, 22 June 2011: Mathilde Holding Baby Who Reaches Out to Right (pastel on paper, 28¾ × 24 ins/72.7 × 60.4 cm) GBP 553,250

London, 21 Sep 2011: In the Opera Box (soft-ground, aquatint, and etching on wove paper, 8¼ × 7½ ins/20.4 × 18.7 cm) GBP 37,250

New York, 1 May 2012: Françoise in a Round-Backed Chair, Reading (oil on canvas, 28¼ × 23½ ins/71.6 × 59.1 cm) USD 1,538,500

New York, 16 May 2012: Sara Holding a Cat (oil on canvas, 16½ × 13 ins/41.3 × 33 cm) USD 2,546,500

New York, 22 May 2013: Study for ‘François in a Round-Backed Chair, Reading’ (oil on canvas, 18 × 15 ins/45.7 × 38.1 cm) USD 317,000

New York, 4 Dec 2013: Little Girl in a Red Beret (oil on canvas, 9½ × 13 ins/24.1 × 33 cm) USD 221,000

New York, 22 May 2014: Girl in a Hat with a Black Ribbon (pastel on paper, 18 × 21½ ins/45.1 × 54.6 cm) USD 665,000

Bibliography