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Article

German, 16th century, male.

Active in 1574.

Monogram of an engraver (wood).

A. H. R. is mentioned by Brulliot. He produced Satyric Allegory on the Catholic Church and Protestantism.

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born 1502, in Paderborn (Westphalia); died c. 1558, in Soest.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features, engraver. Religious subjects, portraits.

Some biographers cite Heinrich Aldegrever's birthplace as the town of Paderborn, Germany, where his parents lived, while others claim it as Soest. He certainly lived in Soest after having completed his studies. In his study of the 'Little Masters' (so called because they engraved mostly small plates), Albert Rosemberg disputes that he studied under Dürer. Rosemburg even claims that he had never been to Nuremberg, despite van Melder's confirmation that Aldegrever worked at the high altar of a church in the town. It is indisputable, however, that Dürer strongly influenced him. Other artists who influenced him are Barthel Beham and Georg Pencz....

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1480, in Altdorf, in Regensburg according to some sources; died 1538, in Regensburg.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, hunting scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Danube School.

Albrecht Altdorfer could be considered as important an artist as Dürer. He probably acquired basic artistic skills while working with his father Ulbrich, who is known to have became a burgher of Regensburg in 1478. Albrecht is also believed to have studied the art of miniature painting. Almost all of his artistic activity took place in Regensburg where he worked from 1508 in various official capacities, playing an active role in the public life of the town. In 1526 he was nominated as the town's architect and directed building works on the ramparts and slaughterhouses. He also became a member of the town council....

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Active between 1512 and 1561.

Painter, engraver (wood), illustrator. Religious subjects.

Erhard Altdorfer is believed to have been the brother of Albrecht Altdorfer. The latter mentions him in his will, dated 12 February 1538, as a citizen of Schwerin. Erhard was a painter to the court of Prince Henry the Peaceful and accompanied him to a royal wedding in Wittenburg. This occasion is believed to have given him the opportunity to meet Lucas Cranach, whose influence can be detected in some of his works. In 1516 he painted an altarpiece in Sternberg, Germany, which has been lost. In a 1552 letter to the young Duke John-Albert of Mecklenburg, he gives the impression of having been an architect along with his brother. Erhard Altdorfer is known today for his wood engravings, some of which are signed with a monogram formed by an intertwining of the letters ...

Article

Italian, 14th century, male.

Engraver, marquetry worker. Religious subjects. Religious furnishings.

From 1331 to 1335, Andrea di Martino da Siena worked on the choir stalls at Orvieto Cathedral with Giovanni Ammanati da Siena and under the direction of Niccolo di Nuto. A record survives there showing his signature and the sum he was paid....

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1435; died 1504.

Painter, miniaturist, illuminator, writer, printer. Religious subjects.

School of Alsace.

Hans Baemler's name appears for the first time in 1453. He established himself in Augsburg as a printer. His name appears on two miniatures, a Crucifixion...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born 1484 or 1485, in Gmund (Swabia); died September 1545, in Strasbourg.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits, genre scenes.

Strasbourg School.

Baldung Grien came from Alsace of a family of some social importance. His father held a position in the bishopric of Strasbourg, one of his uncles was the doctor of Emperor Maximilian and worked in Freiburg-im-Breisgau, while his brother and his cousin - both lawyers - became important officials at the imperial court. As well as his artistic studies, Baldung acquired a solid humanist education while in Strasbourg. He may have worked in the studio of Martin Schongauer, although, like his supposed birth in Weyersheim (a small village in Alsace), this has not been verified. More certain is that he completed his artistic training in Nuremberg between 1505 and 1507 as a pupil of Dürer. The two men quickly recognised each others' talents and remained friends. In 1521, when he travelled to the Netherlands, Dürer took with him several engravings by Baldung, and when he died left his former pupil a lock of his hair (now preserved in the academy in Vienna)....

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1480, in Augsburg; died 1542, in Augsburg.

Painter, engraver, illuminator, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Augsburg School.

Both alone and in collaboration with his son, Leonhard Beck made numerous illuminations and woodcuts. He is believed to have assisted Holbein the Elder. Received as a master in ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born in Nuremberg; died, in Italy.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, battles, portraits.

Nuremberg School.

The younger brother of Hans Sebald Beham, Barthel Beham began working at a very young age; his earliest prints are dated 1520. His independent character and religious views, considered to be heretical, forced him to take refuge in Munich. He then entered the service of Duke William IV of Bavaria, contributing to the decoration of the Duke's new palace. He remained in the court of the Duke until about ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born in Nuremberg; died, in Frankfurt.

Painter, sculptor, engraver (etching/burin/wood), draughtsman. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, military subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, animals.

Nuremberg School.

Elder brother of Barthel Beham, Hans Sebald Beham is said to have been instructed by Albrecht Dürer, whose influence he certainly shows. He was also influenced by the work of Albrecht Altdorfer. Like his brother, Hans Sebald was already producing works when very young. In ...

Article

16th century, male.

Active in Ansbach from 1582 to 1614 (?).

Engraver, goldsmith.

Examples of his work include Christ on the Cross, Hunter and Hunted, Little Book of Animals (seven engravings), Grotesques (two), Ornaments and Sundials (six), Grotesque Ornaments (four) and Little Book of the Forest...

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born 16 December 1534, in Mechelen; died 20 November 1593, in Amsterdam.

Painter (gouache), miniaturist, watercolourist, illuminator, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, village scenes, landscapes with figures.

Amsterdam School.

The son of Simon Bol and pupil of his father's brothers, Jean and Jacques Bol, Hans Bol worked initially in Heidelberg and then in Mons. On 10 February 1560, he was admitted to the guild in Mechelen. In 1572, after the sack of Mechelen, he left the town and, quite destitute, journeyed to Antwerp. Here he made the acquaintance of an art lover, Anton Couvreur, who became his patron. In 1574, he was admitted into the Antwerp painters' guild and, on 16 September of the same year, he was granted citizenship. Concerned that other artists were copying his work, he abandoned painting in egg tempera and started to produce small pictures in oil and gouache. In 1584, the war obliged him to flee Antwerp for Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, where he remained until 1586. He then set up in Amsterdam, having first passed through Dordrecht and Delft. He married a widow whose son, Frans Boch, became his pupil. Other pupils were Jacquaes Savary of Courtrai and Pierre de Kleerck of Antwerp. The usual date given for his death, 1593, seems doubtful because of a miniature on parchment in existence in Berlin in 1883 depicting an ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born 1545; died 1608.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, genre scenes, village scenes.

Antwerp School, Mechelen School.

Peter van der Borcht was a master in Antwerp in 1580. Kramm mentions a painting by him of 1570, a Judgement of Solomon...

Article

Dutch School, 15th–16th century, male.

Born c. 1450 or 1460, in ‘s Hertogenbosch; died 1516, in ‘s Hertogenbosch.

Painter, engraver. Religious subjects.

This artist acquired his name, Bosch, from the Dutch name of his native town, ‘s-Hertogenbosch in Brabant. Little is known about his life. He may have been the son of Laurent Van Aeken who was, in 1464, documented as a burgher of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. More recent research, however, suggests that his father may have been a certain Antoine Van Aeken, a man of some wealth. Sometime before 1481, Hieronymus married Aleyt Van den Mervenne, who was also wealthy, but they had no children. Payments made to Bosch for paintings and drawings, listed in the account books of the ...

Article

Swiss, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born towards the middle of the 15th century, probably in Basel; died before 1518.

Painter, engraver, cartographer. Religious subjects. Maps.

Ludwig Bottschuch entered the Safranzunft guild in Basel in 1478 as a 'son of a master'. A map engraver, he also was also a painter, illustrating Bibles in particular. He may be the author of a series of woodcuts now in the public collection in Basel....

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born between 1475 and 1480, in Augsburg; died 1537, in Augsburg.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, battles, genre scenes, hunting scenes. Murals, designs for stained glass.

Danube School (Augsburg).

Jörg Breu the Elder is mentioned from 1501...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1510; died 1547, in Augsburg.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, battles, genre scenes, hunting scenes.

Danube School (Augsburg).

Jörg Breu the Younger was a pupil of his father, Jörg Breu the Elder. He stayed several times in Italy between ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, female.

Born c. 1524, in Mechelen; died from 1588-1591.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects.

Antwerp School.

Crispin van den Broeck was a pupil of Frans Floris in about 1555, and then a master in Antwerp. It is likely that he travelled in Italy, since he was a journeyman of the Confraternity of Romanists whose members were artists who had been to Rome. In about 1555, he married Barbara de Bruyne and, in 1557, paid for his right to leave Mechelen. On 19 May 1559, he was granted citizenship in Antwerp. On 19 February 1582, he was commissioned to work on preparations for the festivities for the entry into Antwerp of the duke of Anjou. That same year, he painted two pictures with Michel Coxyen for the courtroom at the council hall. In 1584, he moved to Middelbourg but had to return to Antwerp when threatened with the confiscation of his property by the authorities in Antwerp, treatment meted out to any citizen who abandoned the town. His pupils in Antwerp were Nicolas Ficet (1577), Henri de Ruit (1584) and Pierre van de Wal (1588)....

Article

German, 16th century, female.

Born c. 1506, in Fulda, in 1480 according to some sources; died c. 1554, maybe in Erfurt.

Painter, engraver. Religious subjects, portraits.

Hans Brosamer was one of a number of minor German artists who produced engravings and etchings, but specialised particularly in woodcuts. His style is free and interesting. At the end of his life he lived in Erfurt. His paintings are rare....

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1525, in Brueghel, near Breda, or at Brueghel, near 's Hertogenbosch; died 5 September 1569, in Brussels, buried in Brussels, in the church of Notre-Dame de La Chapelle.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, genre scenes, village scenes, landscapes, mountainscapes, seascapes...