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German, 15th century, male.

Active in Ulm.

Painter, glass painter. Religious subjects.

Acker belonged to a family of artists from Ulm. He is known to have produced religious paintings for the chapel of St Leonard in the church in Risstissen. They carry his signature and are dated ...


Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born 1482, in Wyck; died 1577, in Antwerp.

Painter. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Richard Aertsz. was the son of a poor Dutch fisherman. His leg was amputated after having been badly burned and, as a result, he chose a profession that could accommodate his handicap. Due to his remarkable talent he was sent to study with Jan Mostaert the elder, who was then a successful artist in Haarlem. The young Aertsz. was reportedly likable and witty, and these personal qualities and his exceptional circumstances were perhaps a factor in making him a favoured student. It is certainly true that when Aertsz. left Mostaert his work showed a talent superior to that of his master. His first work was a painting of scenes from the life of Joseph, which he produced on the panel flaps of the high altar in the main church of Haarlem. He then went to Antwerp, and was made a member of the town's Academy in ...


Italian, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1527, in Milan; died 11 July 1593, in Milan.

Painter, decorative designer. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits, still-lifes. Designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries.

Prague School.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo belonged to a patrician family from Milan, which boasted three archbishops. Giuseppe, however, came from the 'poor' branch of the family. He was the son of Biagio and is assumed to have learned the rudiments of drawing and painting from his father, although no details of his training as an artist are known. His name first appears in a payment notice of 17 June 1551 in the cathedral construction records. He is believed to have gone to the court of the German emperors in 1561 and to have followed the court to its residences in Vienna and Prague.Arcimboldo enjoyed the successive patronage of Ferdinand I, Maximilian II and, in particular, Rudolph II. From 1562 to 1585 his name appears regularly in the court registers: he was paid 20 florins a month and often received additional sums from the imperial purse. A court painter, he was also commissioned to arrange courtly entertainments such as processions, cavalcades, balls and outdoor parties and it is thought that he may have invented the carousel. He was also a musician and devised 'a colormetric method of musical transcription' - a form of musical notation deciphered and performed on the harpsichord by the viol player Monzo. His biographers, Francine Legrand and Félix Sluys, liken this invention to 'present-day methods for synchronising music and film'. He also advised on the content of imperial collections and travelled for his patrons, acquiring works of art on their behalf.In 1587 he received his discharge from Rudolph II (who made him Count Palatine in 1591) and returned, his fortune made, to the city of his birth, where he died, according to the inscription on his tomb, in 1593 at the age of 63.He was buried at the church of S Pietro della Vigna (it no longer survives). On 28 November 1551, Arcimboldo painted five armorial bearings for the king of Bohemia and a decoration for the main door of the cathedral. In the years following he painted ducal coats of arms for the feast of the Virgin, executed a map of the region of Volpedo and repainted the cathedral façade. In collaboration with his father he drew cartoons for stained glass windows depicting the ...


Flemish, 15th century, male.

Born in Antwerp; died 1493.

Painter. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Flemish School.

In 1549 Lucas Ariaens was admitted to the Confraternity of St Luke of which he was to be the dean five times. He was one of a number of skilled artists who were employed to embellish the church of Our Lady in Antwerp. He was involved in the making of the decorations celebrating the wedding of Charles the Bold in ...


Portuguese, 15th century, male.

Active in Portugal.

Glass painter.

This artist is known to have painted a Passion of Christ and five other works, some vestiges of which are conserved in the convent church of Batalha.


German, 16th century, male.

Born between 1475 and 1480, in Augsburg; died 1537, in Augsburg.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, battles, genre scenes, hunting scenes. Murals, designs for stained glass.

Danube School (Augsburg).

Jörg Breu the Elder is mentioned from 1501...


Spanish, 16th century, male.

Glass painter.

School of Seville.

He worked in Spain, in 1558, on a Resurrection of Christ for the cathedral of Seville. In 1562, he was judged by the Inquisition.


French, 16th century, male.

Born 1520 or 1521, in Beauvais; died 1599, in Paris.

Painter, glass painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits. Designs for tapestries.

First Fontainebleau School.

Caron married Jeanne Bitouzet in 1571 and had several daughters, one of whom married the famous engraver Thomas de Leu, who did a drawing of his father-in-law dated 1592 that is now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris; another married the painter Pierre Gourdelle in 1580. Caron worked at first in his native town, where he painted a large number of religious pictures, notably in three churches that were destroyed at end of the 18th century. During this period he also designed windows for Angrand le Prince and painted pictures that are no longer extant. In 1540, he went to Fontainebleau to work with Primaticcio, and at the same time was getting instruction from Nicolo dell'Abbate. In 1561, he was appointed to take part in the decoration of the gate for the visit of Charles IX, but this occasion was postponed until 1571 and in the event Nicolo dell'Abbate and his son Giulio Camillo were preferred to him. He became Court Painter to Catherine de' Medici in 1559, and in 1562 she commissioned from him, through the apothecary Nicolas Houel, a series of designs on the ...


Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born 1498, in Heemskerk, near Haarlem; died 1 October 1574, in Haarlem.

Painter, glass painter, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects, portraits. Church decoration.

Haarlem School.

Marten Heemskerk's father was a farmer. He apprenticed his son to Cornelis Willemsz. in Haarlem, but soon ordered him back to the farm. Marten lost no time in removing himself to Delft, where he joined the studio of Jan Lucas. Attracted by the fame of Jan van Schoorel, he then sought tuition from him. Tradition declares that Heemskerk's progress was so rapid as to make Schoorel so jealous that he dismissed Marten from his studio. Marten's earliest works did certainly resemble Schoorel's, to the point of being mistaken for the master's, especially the ...


Portuguese, 15th – 16th century, male.

Died c. 1518 or 1519, in Lisbon.

Painter. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Francisco Henriques was certainly Flemish by birth, but there is evidence that he was working in Portugal between 1500 and 1518.

In the exhibition Jan van Eyck, the Flemish Primitives and the South (1430-1530): When the Great Masters Meet...


French, 15th century, male.

Active in Strasbourg between 1421 and 1460.

Painter. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

School of Alsace.

Hans Hirtz is known to have worked for the cathedral and probably for the Dominican church in Strasbourg, and may also have produced plans for windows in the churches of St-Pierre-le-Vieux and St-Guillaume in the same city. According to Lilli Fischel, he painted the ...


French, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born c. 1470, in Burgundy; died c. 1535-1536.

Painter, fresco artist. Religious subjects. Murals, designs for stained glass.

Toledo School.

Juan de Borgoña was the brother, or father, of Felipe Vigarni and may also have been known as Jean Bourguignon. He is thought to have been from the Burgundy region of France, and to have been familiar with Flemish painting. It is also believed that he visited Italy on more than one occasion, and possibly studied in the workshop of Ghirlandaio. What is certain is that he had a good knowledge of fresco techniques, and that his painting shared similarities with the work of Piero della Francesca and Melozzo da Forli, demonstrating an awareness of the Italian Renaissance. Despite this, he also remained a follower of the late Quattrocento, using golden, or Spanish-type backgrounds, and Gothic, or Toledo-style architectural settings....


Swiss, 16th century, male.

Born 1552, in Schaffhausen; died probably in 1607, in Lucerne.

Painter, glass painter, draughtsman, engraver. Religious subjects.

The son and pupil of Felix Lindtmayer the Younger, Daniel spent his early years in his native town before going to Basel in 1574, where he studied the techniques of the Holbein School. In 1580, he was in Bern, where he painted various frescoes and paintings for churches and convents, a large number of which can be found in the area today. In 1586, he worked at the convent of St Blasien (Schwarzwald) and, in 1588, for the count of Solm and also in Bern, Basel, Zurich and Solingen. In 1587, he decorated the house of Forrer, the registrar of Schaffhausen, with frescoes depicting scenes from the Old Testament including ...


German, 16th century, male.

Active from 1500 to 1515.

Painter, engraver (wood). Religious subjects, portraits. Designs for stained glass.

Cologne School.

The influence of the Master of St Severin on the Cologne School was of considerable importance. He is thought to have worked with Dutch artists, or at least to have been influenced by their work. The name of this anonymous artist derives from a ...


German, 15th – 16th century, male.

Painter, glass painter. Religious subjects.

Active around the period 1475 to 1500, this anonymous artist was given this name by Christiane Andersson. Detailed studies of drapery feature in many of his works, which accounts for his alternative name. He worked in Strasbourg as both a painter and a designer of stained glass....


Hungarian, 15th century, male.

Died c. 24 April 1478, in Wiener Neustadt.

Painter, glass painter.

Miko's Birth of Christ (), Original Sin and Adam and Eve Driven from Paradise are in the Stadtmuseum Wiener Neustadt, near Vienna.


Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1420.

Glass painter. Religious subjects.

Lombard School.

Niccolo di Varallo was the son of Leonardo di Varallo. He worked at Milan cathedral from 1460 to 1489.

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): St Eligius Affirming his Innocence to the Emperor of Byzantium...


Spanish, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1400, probably in France; died 1468, in León.

Painter, fresco artist, illuminator. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Nicolas Frances probably hailed from the Burgundy region of France but settled in Spain some time before 1424 and lived in Léon ...


Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1520, in Amersfoort; died 1570 or 1571, in Antwerp.

Painter, illustrator. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Antwerp School.

Lambert van Noort was the father of Adam van Noort the Elder, a member of the Antwerp artists' guild in 1549 and a citizen of Antwerp from 1550. It is possible that he travelled to Italy as one of his paintings is in the church of S Apollinare in Ferrara. He is on record as having died in abject poverty....


Flemish, 16th century, male.

Born probably c. 1492, in Brussels, between 1487 and 1488 according to some sources; died 6 January 1541, in Brussels.

Painter, glass painter. Religious subjects, portraits. Designs for tapestries.

Brussels School.

Bernard van Orley is presumed to be the son of Valentin d'Orley, under whom (or under whose son Philipp) he studied and with whom he collaborated over a long period. His engraved work betrays the influence of Raphael and Dürer....