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Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Painter, illuminator. Religious subjects.

Florentine School.

Alexander was the son of Antonio Simeone of Florence. A hermit of the Order of St Augustine, he created the illuminations for a book of prayers for Lorenzo Strozzi.

Cambridge (Fitzwilliam Library): Book of Prayers...

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Miniaturist, illuminator. Religious subjects.

A monk, this artist illustrated a manuscript of St Augustine's City of God.

Boulogne-sur-Mer (Bibliothèque municipale): The City of God

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Active between 1512 and 1561.

Painter, engraver (wood), illustrator. Religious subjects.

Erhard Altdorfer is believed to have been the brother of Albrecht Altdorfer. The latter mentions him in his will, dated 12 February 1538, as a citizen of Schwerin. Erhard was a painter to the court of Prince Henry the Peaceful and accompanied him to a royal wedding in Wittenburg. This occasion is believed to have given him the opportunity to meet Lucas Cranach, whose influence can be detected in some of his works. In 1516 he painted an altarpiece in Sternberg, Germany, which has been lost. In a 1552 letter to the young Duke John-Albert of Mecklenburg, he gives the impression of having been an architect along with his brother. Erhard Altdorfer is known today for his wood engravings, some of which are signed with a monogram formed by an intertwining of the letters ...

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1435; died 1504.

Painter, miniaturist, illuminator, writer, printer. Religious subjects.

School of Alsace.

Hans Baemler's name appears for the first time in 1453. He established himself in Augsburg as a printer. His name appears on two miniatures, a Crucifixion...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Active in Orvieto.

Illuminator, mosaicist, fresco artist. Religious subjects.

In 1410, Bartolommeo di Pietro executed a miniature of a crucifix for a cathedral missal produced by Angelo di Pietro. In 1417 he worked with Andrea di Giovanni da Orvieto on the restoration of old mosaics and execution of new ones on the cathedral façade. In ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1480, in Augsburg; died 1542, in Augsburg.

Painter, engraver, illuminator, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Augsburg School.

Both alone and in collaboration with his son, Leonhard Beck made numerous illuminations and woodcuts. He is believed to have assisted Holbein the Elder. Received as a master in ...

Article

Flemish, 15th – 16th century, male.

Died in Ghent.

Painter, miniaturist, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Bruges School, Flemish School.

The first member of his family to be an artist, Alexander Bening was to be followed by a number of Flemish miniaturists of particular importance in 16th-century Flanders. He entered the Ghent painters' guild on ...

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born 16 December 1534, in Mechelen; died 20 November 1593, in Amsterdam.

Painter (gouache), miniaturist, watercolourist, illuminator, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, village scenes, landscapes with figures.

Amsterdam School.

The son of Simon Bol and pupil of his father's brothers, Jean and Jacques Bol, Hans Bol worked initially in Heidelberg and then in Mons. On 10 February 1560, he was admitted to the guild in Mechelen. In 1572, after the sack of Mechelen, he left the town and, quite destitute, journeyed to Antwerp. Here he made the acquaintance of an art lover, Anton Couvreur, who became his patron. In 1574, he was admitted into the Antwerp painters' guild and, on 16 September of the same year, he was granted citizenship. Concerned that other artists were copying his work, he abandoned painting in egg tempera and started to produce small pictures in oil and gouache. In 1584, the war obliged him to flee Antwerp for Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, where he remained until 1586. He then set up in Amsterdam, having first passed through Dordrecht and Delft. He married a widow whose son, Frans Boch, became his pupil. Other pupils were Jacquaes Savary of Courtrai and Pierre de Kleerck of Antwerp. The usual date given for his death, 1593, seems doubtful because of a miniature on parchment in existence in Berlin in 1883 depicting an ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born between 1475 and 1480, in Augsburg; died 1537, in Augsburg.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, battles, genre scenes, hunting scenes. Murals, designs for stained glass.

Danube School (Augsburg).

Jörg Breu the Elder is mentioned from 1501...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1500, in Bruges; died 1576.

Painter, illuminator. Religious subjects, portraits.

Bruges School.

Claessins was a pupil of Adrian Becaert and became a master painter in Bruges in 1530. From his marriage to Petronilla Roelants he had three sons, Gillis, Pieter II and Anthuensis, all painters. He continued the tradition of Gerardt David, Ambrosius Benson and Jan Provost, painted a ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Died after 1575.

Painter, copyist. Religious subjects, portraits.

Antwerp School.

In 1549 he was a Master of the Antwerp Guild; his daughter was also a painter. He made copies of the old masters.

Antwerp: Baptism of Christ

Berlin: Descent from the Cross...

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born between 1470 and 1477, in Oostsanen; died before 18 October 1533, in Amsterdam.

Painter, copyist, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, portraits.

Amsterdam School.

Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen was the brother of Cornelis I Buys and the father of Dirck Jacobsz. or Jacobszoon, both of whom were painters. He trained in Haarlem, then moved in about 1500 to Amsterdam, where he was the master of Jan van Scoreel from 1512 to 1517....

Article

French, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1522, probably in Sens (Yonne); died c. 1594, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, religious subjects, mythological subjects.

Fontainebleau School.

Jean Cousin the Younger was a pupil of his father Jean Cousin the Elder and worked for most of his life in Sens....

Article

French, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1420, in Tours; died between 1477 and 1481, in Tours.

Painter, miniaturist, illuminator. Religious subjects, portraits.

Once considered to be one of the most famous painters of his time, Fouquet was forgotten so completely that when two of his paintings were acquired by the Louvre in the 19th century, one was listed as a 'Greek work', while the other was described as a work of the German school. His resurrection is due mainly to the intuition of a collector who anticipated by a long way the work of scholars. In ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1432 or 1445, in Florence, in 1407 according to Zani; died 1497, in Florence, in 1498 according to Zani.

Painter, mosaicist, miniaturist, illuminator. Religious subjects.

Florentine School.

Gherardo di Giovanni di Miniato is thought to be the son of Giovanni di Miniato del Favilla, the putative architect of the triumphal arch in Naples. He worked on the mosaic in the chapel of St Zenobius alongside Sandro Botticelli and he studied under Domenico Ghirlandaio. He was one of the best Florentine miniaturists; he worked for Lorenzo the Magnificent for whom, along with Ghirlandaio, he carried out mosaic work in Florence cathedral. He also worked for Matthias Corvin, King of Hungary. He illuminated the King's Bible, which is now kept in the Vatican Library. The Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence owns a missal by this artist dated ...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1403, in Siena; died c. 1482.

Painter, miniaturist, illustrator. Religious subjects.

Sienese School.

Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia was a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano. He went on to be the assistant of Sano di Pietro. He was already known in ...

Article

German, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1432, in Nuremberg.

Illuminator, engraver (wood).

He made engravings of religious subjects . The imperial library in Vienna possesses a richly illuminated book of hours painted by this artist and known as the Book of Hours of Duke William IV of Bavaria...

Article

Alsatian, 15th century, male.

Active betweenc.1438 and 1470 in Strasbourg, Metz, Saarbrücken.

Born before 1438; died before 1485.

Painter, illuminator. Religious subjects.

School of Alsace.

Jost Haller's name occurs several times in 15th-century town archives on both sides of the Rhine. The first such mention is in Strasbourg, ...

Article

Flemish, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active also in England.

Born c. 1465, in Ghent; died c. 1540, in Ghent.

Painter, illuminator. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

Ghent School, Flemish School.

Gérard Horebout is often referred to as Gerard Harembourg and his name occurs in a variety of spellings. It seems probable that he was the Gerard Horebout or Huerebout mentioned by Albrecht Dürer in his ...

Article

12th century, male.

Illuminator. Religious subjects.

Hugh ornamented the St Jerome's Commentaries on Isaiah now in Oxford, following the style of the Devonshire Benedictional.

Oxford (Bodleian Library): St Jerome's Commentaries on Isaiah