Chinese, 11th century, male.
Active at the end of the 9th century.
Of Mongol origin.
Song Nian was an official who retired young in order to devote himself to poetry and calligraphy. He wrote the Yi Yuan Lun Hua, a treatise on painting that is a mix of critical judgements, aesthetic principles and technical procedures. The technical parts are based on solid experience, and his personal views are strong and original: he contrasts the need for individual creativity with the traditional precepts of imitating the ancients....